51 publications classées par:
type de publication
: Revue avec comité de lecture
Articles Kaufmann M., Krings F. & Sczesny S. (in press). Looking Too Old? How an Older Age Appearance Reduces Chances of Being Hired. British Journal of Management. [doi] [abstract]
Building on theories of impression formation based on faces, this research investigates the impact of job candidates' facial age appearance on hiring as well as the underlying mechanism. In an experiment, participants decided whether to hire a fictitious candidate aged 50 years, 30 years or without age information. The candidate's age was signaled either via chronological information (varied by date of birth) or via facial age appearance (varied by a photograph on the résumé). Findings showed that candidates with older-appearing faces-but not chronologically older candidates-triggered impressions of low health and fitness, compared to younger-appearing candidates. These impressions reduced perceptions of person-job fit, which lowered hiring probabilities for older-appearing candidates. These findings provide the first evidence that trait impressions from faces are a determinant of age discrimination in personnel selection. They call for an extension of current models of age discrimination by integrating the effects of face-based trait impressions, particularly with respect to health and fitness.
Roulin N., Krings. F. & Binggeli S. (in press). A dynamic model of applicant faking. Organizational Psychology Review. [doi] [abstract]
In the past years, several authors have proposed theoretical models of faking at selection. Although¦these models greatly improved our understanding of applicant faking, they mostly offer static approaches.¦In contrast,we propose a model of applicant faking derived from signaling theory, which describes¦faking as a dynamic process driven by applicants' and organizations' adaptations in a competitive environment.¦We argue that faking depends on applicants' motivation and capacity to fake, which are¦determined by individual differences in skills, abilities, and stable attitudes, as well as by perceptions of¦the competition, but also on applicants' perceived opportunities versus risks to fake, which are contingent¦upon organizations' measures to increase the costs of faking. We further explain how selection¦outcomes can trigger adaptations of applicants, such as faking in subsequent selection encounters, and of¦organizations, such as changes in measures making faking costly for applicants in the long term.
Bollmann G. & Krings F. (2016). Workgroup climates and employees' counterproductive work behaviors: A social-cognitive perspective. Journal of Management Studies, 53, 184-209. [doi] [pdf] [abstract]
This research examines employees' anticipation of social and self-sanctions as a self-regulatory mechanism linking workgroup climates and counterproductive work behaviors (CWBs) and personality as a limit to these effects. A cross-level study with 158 employees from 26 workgroups demonstrated that in groups with a high compliance climate-a climate emphasizing the importance of complying with organizational rules-employees anticipate more social and self-sanctions, leading those low in conscientiousness and low in agreeableness to engage less frequently in CWBs. In contrast, a high relational climate-a climate emphasizing the importance of positive social relations over self-interest-indirectly unbridles the CWBs of these employees by alleviating the social and self-sanctions they anticipate for CWBs. Climates did not have indirect effects for employees high in agreeableness and high in conscientiousness. These findings elucidate why workgroup climates do not affect the CWBs of all members in the same way.
Bollmann G., Krings F., Maggiori C. & Rossier J. (2015). Differential associations of personal and general just-world beliefs with the Five-Factor and HEXACO models of personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 87, 312-319. [doi] [url] [abstract]
Recent literature evidences differential associations of personal and general just-world beliefs with constructs in the interpersonal domain. In line with this research, we examine the respective relationships of each just-world belief with the Five-Factor and the HEXACO models of personality in one representative sample of the working population of Switzerland and one sample of the general US population, respectively. One suppressor effect was observed in both samples: Neuroticism and emotionality was positively associated with general just-world belief, but only after controlling for personal just-world belief. In addition, agreeableness was positively and honesty-humility negatively associated with general just-world belief but unrelated to personal just-world belief. Conscientiousness was consistently unrelated to any of the just-world belief and extraversion and openness to experience revealed unstable coefficients across studies. We discuss these points in light of just-world theory and their implications for future research taking both dimensions into account.
Binggeli S., Krings F. & Sczesny S. (2014). Perceived competition explains regional differences in stereotype content of immigrant groups. Social Psychology, 45(1), 62-70. [doi] [pdf] [abstract]
This research investigates differences in the stereotype content of immigrant groups between linguistic regions. We expected¦that immigrant groups who speak the local language of a specific linguistic region would be perceived as more competitive within this¦region than in another linguistic region. Further, we expected these differences would underlie regional differences in stereotype content,¦albeit only for the warmth dimension. Predictions were tested in the two largest linguistic regions of Switzerland. As expected, in the¦German-speaking region, locals perceived German immigrants as more competitive and thus as less warm, whereas in the French-speaking¦region, locals perceived French immigrants as more competitive and, consequently, as less warm. So, paradoxically, immigrants with¦strong integration potential are particularly disliked because they are regarded as direct competitors.
Binggeli S., Krings F. & Sczesny S. (2014). Stereotype Content of Immigrant Groups in Switzerland. Swiss Journal of Psychology, 73(3), 123-133. [pdf]
Dietz J., Antonakis J., Hoffrage U., Krings F., Marewski J. N. & Zehnder C. (2014). Teaching evidence-based management with a focus on producing local evidence. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 13(3), 397-414. [doi] [pdf] [abstract]
We present an approach to teaching evidence-based management (EBMgt) that trains future managers how to produce local evidence. Local evidence is causally interpretable data, collected on-site in companies to address a specific business problem. Our teaching method is a variant of problem-based learning, a method originally developed to teach evidence-based medicine. Following this method, students learn an evidence-based problem-solving cycle for addressing actual business cases. Executing this cycle, students use and produce scientific evidence through literature searches and the design of local, experimental tests of causal hypotheses. We argue the value of teaching EBMgt with a focus on producing local evidence, how it can be taught, and what can be taught. We conclude by outlining our contribution to the literature on teaching EBMgt and by discussing limitations of our approach.
Krings F., Johnston C., Binggeli S. & Maggiori C. (2014). Selective incivility : Immigrant groups experience subtle workplace discrimination at different rates. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 20(4), 491-498. [doi] [pdf]
Binggeli S., Dietz J. & Krings F. (2013). Immigrants: A forgotten minority. Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice, 6(1), 107-113. [doi] [pdf] [web of science]
Gilles I., Bangerter A., Clémence A., Green E.G.T., Krings F., Mouton A. et al. (2013). Collective symbolic coping with disease threat and othering: A case study of avian influenza. British Journal of Social Psychology, 52(1), 83-102. [doi] [pdf] [web of science] [abstract]
Much research studies how individuals cope with disease threat by blaming out-groups and protecting the in-group. The model of collective symbolic coping (CSC) describes four stages by which representations of a threatening event are elaborated in the mass media: awareness, divergence, convergence, and normalization. We used the CSC model to predict when symbolic in-group protection (othering) would occur in the case of the avian influenza (AI) outbreak. Two studies documented CSC stages and showed that othering occurred during the divergence stage, characterized by an uncertain symbolic environment. Study 1 analysed media coverage of AI over time, documenting CSC stages of awareness and divergence. In Study 2, a two-wave repeated cross-sectional survey was conducted just after the divergence stage and a year later. Othering was measured by the number of foreign countries erroneously ticked by participants as having human victims. Individual differences in germ aversion and social dominance orientation interacted to predict othering during the divergence stage but not a year later. Implications for research on CSC and symbolic in-group protection strategies resulting from disease threat are discussed.
Maggiori C., Johnston C. S., Krings F., Massoudi K. & Rossier J. (2013). The role of career adaptability and work conditions on general and professional well-being. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 83(3), 437-449. [doi] [abstract]
This study, conducted with a representative sample of employed and unemployed adults living in Switzerland (N = 2002), focuses on work conditions (in terms of professional insecurity and job demands), career adaptability, and professional and general well-being. Analyses of¦covariance highlighted that both unemployed and employed participants with low job insecurity reported higher scores on career adaptability and several dimensions (notably on control) than employed participants with high job insecurity. Moreover, structural equation modeling for employed participants showed that, independent of work conditions, adaptability resources were positively associated both with general and professional well-being. As expected professional outcomes were strongly related to job strain and professional insecurity, emphasizing the central role of the work environment. Finally, career adaptability partially mediated the relationship between job strain and professional insecurity, and the outcome well-being.
Bangerter A., Krings F., Mouton A., Gilles I., Green E. G. T. & Clémence A. (2012). Longitudinal investigation of public trust in institutions relative to the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in Switzerland. PLoS ONE, 7(11), e49806. [doi]
Krings F., Green E. G. T., Bangerter A., Staerklé C., Clémence A., Wagner-Egger P. & Bornand T. (2012). Preventing contagion with avian influenza: Disease salience, attitudes toward foreigners, and avoidance beliefs. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 42, 1451-1466. [doi] [abstract]
Building on an evolutionary approach to outgroup avoidance, this study shows relations between perceived disease salience and beliefs in the efficacy of avoiding foreigners as protective measures, in the context of a real-life pandemic risk; i.e., avian influenza. People for whom avian influenza was salient and who held unfavourable attitudes toward foreigners were more likely to believe that avoiding contact with foreigners protects against infection. This finding suggests that individual differences in social attitudes moderate evolved mechanisms relating threat of disease to outgroup avoidance.
Palazzo G., Krings F. & Hoffrage U. (2012). Ethical Blindness. Journal of Business Ethics, 109(3), 323-338. [doi] [url] [abstract]
Many models of (un)ethical decision making assume that people decide rationally and are in principle able to evaluate their decisions from a moral point of view. However, people might behave unethically without being aware of it. They are ethically blind. Adopting a sensemaking approach, we argue that ethical blindness results from a complex interplay between individual sensemaking activities and context factors.
Gilles I., Bangerter A., Clémence A., Green E. G. T., Krings F., Staerklé C. & Wagner-Egger P. (2011). Trust in medical organizations predicts pandemic (H1N1) 2009 vaccination behavior and perceived efficacy of protection measures in the Swiss public. European Journal of Epidemiology, 26, 203-210. [doi] [abstract]
Following the recent avian influenza and pandemic (H1N1) 2009 outbreaks, public trust in medical and political authorities is emerging as a new predictor of compliance with officially recommended protection measures. In a two-wave longitudinal survey of adults in French-speaking Switzerland, trust in medical organizations longitudinally predicted actual vaccination status 6 months later, during the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 vaccination campaign. No other variables explained significant amounts of variance. Trust in medical organizations also predicted perceived efficacy of officially recommended protection measures (getting vaccinated, washing hands, wearing a mask, sneezing into the elbow), as did beliefs about health issues (perceived vulnerability to disease, threat perceptions). These findings show that in the case of emerging infectious diseases, actual behavior and perceived efficacy of protection measures may have different antecedents. Moreover, they suggest that public trust is a crucial determinant of vaccination behavior and underscore the practical importance of managing trust in disease prevention campaigns.
Krings F., Sczesny S. & Kluge A. (2011). Stereotypical inferences as mediators of age discrimination: The role of competence and warmth. British Journal of Management, 22, 187-201. [pdf]
Wagner-Egger P., Bangerter A., Gilles I., Green E.G.T., Rigaud D., Krings F. et al. (2011). Public perceptions of collectives at the outbreak of the H1N1 epidemic: Heroes, villains and victims. Public Understanding of Science, 20, 461-476. [doi] [pdf] [abstract]
Lay perceptions of collectives (e.g., groups, organizations, countries) implicated in the 2009 H1N1 outbreak were studied. Collectives serve symbolic functions to help laypersons make sense of the uncertainty involved in a disease outbreak. We argue that lay representations are dramatized, featuring characters like heroes, villains and victims. In interviews conducted soon after the outbreak, 47 Swiss respondents discussed the risk posed by H1N1, its origins and effects, and protective measures. Countries were the most frequent collectives mentioned. Poor, underdeveloped countries were depicted as victims, albeit ambivalently, as they were viewed as partly responsible for their own plight. Experts (physicians, researchers) and political and health authorities were depicted as heroes. Two villains emerged: the media (viewed as fear mongering or as a puppet serving powerful interests) and private corporations (e.g., the pharmaceutical industry). Laypersons' framing of disease threat diverges substantially from official perspectives.
Green E. G. T., Krings F., Staerklé C., Bangerter A., Clémence A., Wagner-Egger P. & Bornand T. (2010). Keeping the Vermin Out: Perceived Disease Threat and Ideological Orientations as Predictors of Exclusionary Immigration Attitudes. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 20, 299-316. [doi] [pdf] [abstract]
Integrating evolutionary and social representations theories, the current study examines the relationship between perceived disease threat and exclusionary immigration attitudes in the context of a potential avian influenza pandemic. This large-scale disease provides a realistic context for investigating the link between disease threat and immigration attitudes. The main aim of this cross-sectional study (N=412) was to explore mechanisms through which perceived chronic and contextual disease threats operate on immigration attitudes. Structural equation models show that the relationship between chronic disease threat (germ aversion) and exclusionary immigration attitudes (assimiliationist immigration criteria, health-based immigration criteria and desire to reduce the proportion of foreigners) was mediated by ideological and normative beliefs (social dominance orientation, belief in a dangerous world), but not by contextual disease threat (appraisal of avian influenza pandemic threat). Contextual disease threat only predicted support for health-based immigration criteria. The conditions under which real-life disease threats influence intergroup attitudes are scrutinized. Convergence and dissimilarity of evolutionary and social representational approaches in accounting for the link between disease threat and immigration attitudes are discussed.
Gomez V., Krings F., Bangerter A. & Grob A. (2009). The influence of personality and life events on subjective well-being from a life span perspective. Journal of Research in Personality, 43(3), 345-354. [doi] [pdf]
Krings F., Bollmann G. & Palazzo B. (2009). Diversity "spielerisch" trainieren: Auswirkungen auf Einstellungen und Sensibilität gegenüber Diversity bei Führungskräften. Zeitschrift für Arbeits- und Organisationspsychologie, 53, 33-38.
Krings F. & Facchin S. (2009). Organizational justice and men's likelihood to sexually harass: The moderating role of sexism and personality. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94, 501-510. [pdf]
Bangerter A., Krings F., Blatti S. & Pététin M. (2008). Les représentations de l'entretien structuré chez les recruteurs. Psychologie du Travail et des Organisations, 14, 258-275.
Kluge A., Fröhlich O. & Krings F. (2008). Altersdiskriminierung und das Allgemeine Gleichbehandlungsgesetz [Age discrimination and the German Discrimination in Employment Act]. Wirtschaftspsychologie, 3, 129-139. [url]
Kluge A. & Krings F. (2008). Attitudes toward Older Workers and Human Resource Practice. Swiss Journal of Psychology, 67, 61-64.
Krings F., Bangerter A., Gomez V. & Grob A. (2008). Cohort Differences in Personal Goals and Life Satisfaction in Young Adulthood: Evidence for Historical Shifts in Developmental Tasks. Journal of Adult Development, 15, 93-105. [pdf]
Petersen L.-E. & Krings F. (2008). Are ethical codes of conduct toothless tigers when it comes to employment discrimination?. Journal of Business Ethics, 85(4), 501-514. [pdf]
Kluge A. & Krings F. (2007). Altersdiskriminierung: (k)ein Thema in der deutschsprachigen Arbeits- und Organisationspsychologie?. Zeitschrift für Arbeits- und Organisationspsychologie, 51, 180-189.
Krings F. & Olivares J. (2007). At the doorstep to employment: Discrimination of immigrants as a function of applicant ethnicity, job type, and prejudice. International Journal of Psychology, 42, 406-417. [pdf]
Krings F., Tschan F. & Bettex S. (2007). Determinants of attitudes toward affirmative action in a Swiss sample. Journal of Business and Psychology, 21(4), 585-611. [url] [abstract]
162 Swiss employees were surveyed to assess knowledge of and attitudes toward different types of affirmative action programs (AAPs) for women. Findings show that knowledge of AAPs was limited and AAPs were most frequently associated with child care measures. Attitudes toward opportunity enhancement programs, especially toward child care, were more positive than toward preferential selection and positive discriminatory programs. Women held more positive attitudes toward AAPs. However, for some attitudes, gender differences were entirely mediated by symbolic prejudice toward working women. Independently of gender, symbolic prejudice was a key predictor of all attitudes. Measures of self-view (self-esteem and gender self-concept) were largely unrelated to attitudes toward AAPs. Implications for research and organizations are discussed.
Kluge A. & Krings F. (2006). Generation 50+. Zuverslässigkeit versus Entwicklungspotential. HR Today, 1, 22-23.
Krings F. (2004). Automatic and controlled influences of associations with age on memory. Swiss Journal of Psychology, 63, 247-259.
Bangerter A., Grob A. & Krings F. (2001). Personal goals at age 25 in three generations of the twentieth century: Young adulthood in historical context. Swiss Journal of Psychology, 60, 59-64.
Grob A. Krings F. & Bangerter A. (2001). Life markers in biographical narratives of people from three cohorts: A life span perspective in its historical context. Human Development, 44, 171-190.
Krings F. (1998). Short-term and long-term effects of resistance training on well-being and memory in the elderly. Age and Ageing, 27, 469-475.
Parties de livre Krings F. & Bollmann G. (2011). Managing counterproductive work behaviors. In Palazzo G. & Wentland M. (Eds.), Responsibility management practices for the 21st century (pp. 151-159). Paris: Pearson.
Krings F., Bollmann G. & Kluge A. (2011). Les normes d'âge: stéréotypes et préjugés. In S. Laberon (Ed.), Psychologie et Recrutement (pp. 129-146). Bruxelles: De Boeck.
Krings F. & Kluge A. (2008). Altersvorurteile. In L.-E. Petersen & B. Six (Ed.), Stereotype, Vorurteile und soziale Diskriminierung (pp. 131-139). Beltz-Verlag.
Schmid Mast M. & Krings F. (2008). Stereotype und Informationsverarbeitung. In L.-E. Petersen & B. Six (Ed.), Stereotype, Vorurteile und soziale Diskriminierung (pp. 33-44). Beltz-Verlag.
Chapitre Krings F. & Bangerter A. (2010). Durch Diversity Management die demografische Alterung meistern. G. Ochsenbein (Ed.), HRM Jahrbuch. Weka.
Schmid Mast M. & Krings F. (2008). Stereotype und Informationsverarbeitung. In Petersen L. & Six B. (Eds.), Stereotype, Vorurteile und soziale Diskriminierung. Theorien, Befunde und Interventionen (pp. 33-44). Basel, Switzerland: Beltz Verlag. [pdf] [url]
Krings F., Grob A. & Bangerter A. (2000). Erlebte und antizipierte Biografien von Personen aus drei verschiedenen Kohorten. Comparer ou prédire: Exemples de recherches comparatives en psychologie aujourd'hui (pp. 127-139). E. Thommen & H. Kilcher.
Schlittler B., Krings F. & Bangerter A. (2000). Life courses and life projects of childless women. Comparer ou prédire: Exemples de recherches comparatives en psychologie aujourd'hui (pp. 141-151). E. Thommen & H. Kilcher.
Actes de conférence (partie) Fiori M., Krings F. & Kleinlogel E. P. (2013, Juil). Mind your perspective: How perspective taking shapes perception of norm-violating actions. International Society for the Study of Individual Differences (ISSID) Meeting, Barcelona, Espana.
Binggeli S., Kleinlogel E. P., Krings F. & Dietz J. (2012, Août). Support for a demographically based selection method at University: The role of competition. Annual Academy of Management Conference in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. [abstract]
Building on the instrumental model of group conflict (IMGC), the present experiment investigates the support for discriminatory and meritocratic method of selections at university in a sample of local and immigrant students. Results showed that local students were supporting in a larger proportion selection method that favors them over immigrants in comparison to method that consists in selecting the best applicants without considering his/her origin. Supporting the assumption of the IMGC, this effect was stronger for locals who perceived immigrants as competing for resources. Immigrant students supported more strongly the meritocratic selection method than the one that discriminated them. However, contrasting with the assumption of the IMGC, this effect was only present in students who perceived immigrants as weakly competing for locals' resources. Results demonstrate that selection methods used at university can be perceived differently depending on students' origin. Further, they suggest that the mechanisms underlying the perception of discriminatory and meritocratic selection methods differ between local and immigrant students. Hence, the present experiment makes a theoretical contribution to the IMGC by delimiting its assumptions to the ingroup facing a competitive situation with a relevant outgroup. Practical implication for universities recruitment policies are discussed.
Bollmann G. & Krings F. (2012, Août). What role do just-world beliefs play in harmful responses to injustice?. Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. [abstract]
Research suggests that employees sometimes retaliate and sometimes refrain from retaliation for the same reason, namely because they care about justice. In two studies, we seek to solve this apparent inconsistency. Drawing on just world theory, we argue that retaliatory, harmful behavioral strategies to deal with injustice are associated to individual differences in personal belief in a just world (personal BJW). In contrast, individual differences in believing that the world is just in general (general BJW) are linked to the inhibition of these reactions. As a consequence, the relation between injustice and harmful behaviors is stronger for people with a high personal BJW than for those with a low one. General BJW is associated with their inhibition such that the relation between injustice and harmful reactions is weaker for people with a high general BJW than for those with a low one. We found evidence for our hypotheses in a cross-sectional field study and an experiment. We discuss our findings in light of their implications for just-world theory and suggest avenues for future research integrating organizational justice literature.
Grieder M., Zehnder C. & Krings F. (2011). The Value of Voice - How Granting And Denying Voice Affects Reciprocity. 12th Congress of the Swiss Psychological Society, Fribourg, Switzerland.
Kleinlogel E. P. & Krings F. (2010, Août). Etude sur la discrimination à l'embauche: Les codes de conduite sont-ils vraiment sans défense face à un ordre contraire de la hiérarchie?. 8ème Congrès International de Psychologie Sociale en Langue Française, Nice, France.
Abstract Binggeli S., Krings F., Sczesny S., Theiler R. & Grieder M. (2009, Août). "Not all immigrants are created equal": Warmth and competence stereotypes as a function of national origin [Abstract]. . Congress of the Swiss Psychological Society, Neuchâtel, Switzerland. [pdf] [url]
Thèses Steiner R., Krings F. (Dir.) (2015). The work-family interface from a crossover perspective and a gender perspective. Université de Lausanne, Faculté des hautes études commerciales.
Binggeli S., Krings F. (Dir.) (2014). Three essays on the antecedents and mechanisms leading to the unfair treatment of immigrants. Université de Lausanne, Faculté des hautes études commerciales. [pdf]
Bollmann G., Krings, F. (Dir.) (2012). Workplace Aggressive Behaviors: Three Essays. Université de Lausanne, Faculté des hautes études commerciales. [abstract]
Abstract¦This thesis examines through three essays the role of the social context and of people concern for justice in explaining workplace aggressive behaviors.¦In the first essay, I argue that a work group instrumental climate - a climate emphasizing respect of organizational procedures -deters employees to manifest counterproductive work behaviors through informal sanctions (i.e., socio-emotional disapproval) they anticipate from it for misbehaving. A contrario, a work group affective climate - a climate concerned about others' well-being - leads employees to infer less informal sanctions and thus indirectly facilitates counterproductive work behaviors. I additionally expect these indirect effects to be conditional on employees' level of conscientiousness and agreeableness. Cross-level structural equations on cross-sectional data obtained from 158 employees in 26 work groups supported my expectations. By promoting collective responsibility for the respect of organizational rules and by knowing what their work group considers threatening their well-being, leaders may be able to prevent counterproductive work behaviors.¦Adopting an organizational justice perspective, the second essay provides a theoretical explanation of why and how collective deviance can emerge in a collective. In interdependent situations, employees use justice perceptions to infer others' cooperative intent. Even if moral transgressions (e.g., injustice) are ambiguous, their repetition and configuration within a team can lead employees to assign blame and develop collective cynicism toward the transgressor. Over time, collective cynicism - a shared belief about the transgressor's intentional lack of integrity - progressively constrains the diversity of employees' response to blame and leads collective deviance to emerge. This essay contributes to workplace deviance research by offering a theoretical framework for investigations of the phenomenon at the collective level. It organizations effort to manage and prevent deviance should consider.¦In the third essay, I solve an apparent contradiction in the literature showing that justice concerns sometimes lead employees to react aggressively to injustice and sometimes to refrain from it. Drawing from just-world theory, a cross-sectional field study and an experiment provide evidence that retaliatory tendencies following injustice are moderated by personal and general just-world beliefs. Whereas a high personal just-world belief facilitates retaliatory reactions to injustice, a high general just-world belief attenuates such reactions. This essay uncovers a dark side of personal just-world belief and a bright one of general just-world belief, and participates to extend just-world theory to the working context.