119 publications classées par:
type de publication
: Revue avec comité de lecture
Articles Rönkkö R., McIntosh C. N., Antonakis J. & Edwards J. R. (in press). Partial least squares path modeling: Time for some serious second thoughts. Journal of Operations Management.
Antonakis J., Bastardoz N., Jacquart P. & Shamir B. (2016). Charisma: An ill-defined and ill-measured gift. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 3(1), 293-319. [doi] [pdf] [url] [abstract]
We take historical stock of charisma, tracing its origins and how it has been conceptualized in the sociological and organizational sciences literatures. Although charisma has been intensely studied, the concept is still not well understood and much of the research undertaken cannot inform policy. We show that the major obstacles to advancing our understanding of charisma have included issues with its definition, its confusion with transformational leadership, the use of questionnaire measures, and that it has not been studied using correctly-specified causal models. To help spawn a new genre of research in charisma, we use signaling theory to provide a general definition of charisma, and make suggestions about how charisma should be conceptualized, operationalized, and modeled. We also describe trends and patterns in articles we reviewed, using co-citation as well as bibliometric analyses, and discuss the practical implications of our findings.
Bendahan S., Zehnder C., Pralong F.P. & Antonakis J. (2015). Leader corruption depends on power and testosterone. The Leadership Quarterly, 26(2), 101-122. [doi] [pdf] [abstract]
We used incentivized experimental games to manipulate leader power-the number of followers and the discretion leaders had to enforce their will. Leaders had complete autonomy in deciding payouts to themselves and their followers. Although leaders could make prosocial decisions to benefit the public good they could also abuse their power by invoking antisocial decisions, which reduced the total payouts to the group but increased leader's earnings. In Study 1 (N = 478), we found that both amount of followers and discretionary choices independently predicted leader corruption. In Study 2 (N = 240), we examined how power and individual differences (e.g., personality, hormones) affected leader corruption over time; power interacted with testosterone in predicting corruption, which was highest when leader power and baseline testosterone were both high. Honesty predicted initial level of leader antisocial decisions; however, honesty did not shield leaders from the corruptive effect of power.
Jacquart P. & Antonakis J. (2015). When does charisma matter for top-level leaders? Effect of attributional ambiguity. Academy of Management Journal, 58(4), 1051-1074. [doi] [pdf] [abstract]
One stream of leadership theory suggests leaders are evaluated via inferential observer processes that compare the fit of the target to a prototype of an ideal (charismatic) leader. Attributional theories of leadership suggest that evaluations depend on knowledge of past organizational performance, which is attributed to the leader's skills. We develop a novel theory showing how inferential and attributional processes simultaneously explain top-level leader evaluation and ultimately leader retention and selection. We argue that observers will mostly rely on attributional mechanisms when performance signals clearly indicate good or poor performance outcomes. However, under conditions of attributional ambiguity (i.e., when performance signals are unclear), observers will mostly rely on inferential processes. In Study 1 we tested our theory in an unconventional context-the U.S. presidential election-and found that the two processes, due to the leader's charisma and country economic performance, interact in predicting whether a leader is selected. Using a business context and an experimental design, in Study 2 we show that CEO charisma and firm performance interact in predicting leader retention, confirming the results we found in Study 1. Our results suggest that this phenomenon is quite general and can apply to various performance domains.
Rönkkö M., McIntosh C. N. & Antonakis J. (2015). On the Adoption of Partial Least Squares in Psychological Research: Caveat Emptor. Personality and Individual Differences, 87, 76-84. [doi] [pdf] [abstract]
The partial least squares technique (PLS) has been touted as a viable alternative to latent variable structural equation modeling (SEM) for evaluating theoretical models in the differential psychology domain. We bring some balance to the discussion by reviewing the broader methodological literature to highlight: (1) the misleading characterization of PLS as an SEM method; (2) limitations of PLS for global model testing; (3) problems in testing the significance of path coefficients; (4) extremely high false positive rates when using empirical confidence intervals in conjunction with a new "sign change correction" for path coefficients; (5) misconceptions surrounding the supposedly superior ability of PLS to handle small sample sizes and non-normality; and (6) conceptual and statistical problems with formative measurement and the application of PLS to such models. Additionally, we also reanalyze the dataset provided by Willaby et al. (2015; doi:10.1016/j.paid.2014.09.008) to highlight the limitations of PLS. Our broader review and analysis of the available evidence makes it clear that PLS is not useful for statistical estimation and testing.
Sturm R. E. & Antonakis J. (2015). Interpersonal Power: A Review, Critique, and Research Agenda. Journal of Management, 41(1), 136-163. [doi] [pdf] [abstract]
Power is a fundamental force in social relationships and is pervasive throughout various types of¦interactions. Although research has shown that the possession of power can change the¦powerholder, the full extent of power's consequences on individuals' decision making¦capabilities and social interactions within organizations is not fully understood. The goal of this¦paper is to review, synthesize, and critique the literature on power with a focus on its¦organizational and managerial implications. Specifically, we propose a definition of power that¦takes into account its three defining characteristics-having the discretion and means to enforce¦one's will-and summarize the extant literature on how power influences individuals' thoughts,¦emotions, and actions both in terms of prosocial and antisocial outcomes. In addition, we¦highlight important moderators of power and describe ways in which it can be studied in a more¦rigorous manner by examining methodological issues and pitfalls with regard to its measurement¦and manipulation. We also provide future research directions to motivate and guide the study of¦power by management scholars. Our desire is to present a thorough and parsimonious account of¦power's influence on individuals within an organizational context, as well as provide a¦foundation that scholars can build upon as they continue to make consequential contributions to¦the study of power.
Antonakis J., Bastardoz N., Liu Y. & Schriesheim C. A. (2014). What makes articles highly cited?. The Leadership Quarterly, 25(1), 152-179. [doi] [pdf] [abstract]
We examined drivers of article citations using 776 articles that were published from 1990-2012 in a broad-based and high-impact social sciences journal, The Leadership Quarterly. These articles had 1,191 unique authors having published and received in total (at the time of their most recent article published in our dataset) 16,817 articles and 284,777 citations, respectively. Our models explained 66.6% of the variance in citations and showed that quantitative, review, method, and theory articles were significantly more cited than were qualitative articles or agent-based simulations. As concerns quantitative articles, which constituted the majority of the sample, our model explained 80.3% of the variance in citations; some methods (e.g., use of SEM) and designs (e.g., meta-analysis), as well as theoretical approaches (e.g., use of transformational, charismatic, or visionary type-leadership theories) predicted higher article citations. Regarding the statistical conclusion validity of quantitative articles, articles having endogeneity threats received significantly fewer citations than did those using a more robust design or an estimation procedure that ensured correct causal estimation. We make several general recommendations on how to improve research practice and article citations.
Antonakis J. & House R. J. (2014). Instrumental leadership: Measurement and extension of transformational-transactional leadership theory. The Leadership Quarterly, 25(4), 746-771. [doi] [pdf] [abstract]
Leaders must scan the internal and external environment, chart strategic and task objectives, and provide performance feedback. These instrumental leadership (IL) functions go beyond the motivational and quid-pro quo leader behaviors that comprise the full-range-transformational, transactional, and laissez faire-leadership model. In four studies we examined the construct validity of IL. We found evidence for a four-factor IL model that was highly prototypical of good leadership. IL predicted top-level leader emergence controlling for the full-range factors, initiating structure, and consideration. It also explained unique variance in outcomes beyond the full-range factors; the effects of transformational leadership were vastly overstated when IL was omitted from the model. We discuss the importance of a "fuller full-range" leadership theory for theory and practice. We also showcase our methodological contributions regarding corrections for common method variance (i.e., endogeneity) bias using two-stage least squares (2SLS) regression and Monte Carlo split-sample designs.
Dietz J., Antonakis J., Hoffrage U., Krings F., Marewski J. N. & Zehnder C. (2014). Teaching evidence-based management with a focus on producing local evidence. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 13(3), 397-414. [doi] [pdf] [abstract]
We present an approach to teaching evidence-based management (EBMgt) that trains future managers how to produce local evidence. Local evidence is causally interpretable data, collected on-site in companies to address a specific business problem. Our teaching method is a variant of problem-based learning, a method originally developed to teach evidence-based medicine. Following this method, students learn an evidence-based problem-solving cycle for addressing actual business cases. Executing this cycle, students use and produce scientific evidence through literature searches and the design of local, experimental tests of causal hypotheses. We argue the value of teaching EBMgt with a focus on producing local evidence, how it can be taught, and what can be taught. We conclude by outlining our contribution to the literature on teaching EBMgt and by discussing limitations of our approach.
Khayesi J., George G. & Antonakis J. (2014). Kinship in entrepreneur networks: Performance effects of resource assembly in Africa. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 38(6), 1323-1342. [doi] [pdf] [abstract]
We examine the relationship between structural social capital, resource assembly, and firm performance of entrepreneurs in Africa. We posit that social capital primarily composed of kinship or family ties helps the entrepreneur to raise resources, but it does so at a cost. Using data drawn from small firms in Kampala, Uganda, we explore how shared identity among the entrepreneur's social network moderates this relationship. A large network contributed a higher quantity of resources raised, but at a higher cost when shared identity was high. We discuss the implications of these findings for the role of family ties and social capital in resource assembly, with an emphasis on developing economies.
Lee Y. T. & Antonakis J. (2014). When Preference Is Not Satisfied but the Individual Is: How Power Distance Affects Person-Job Fit. Journal of Management, 40(3), 641-675. [doi] [pdf] [abstract]
One aspect of person-job fit reflects congruence between personal preferences and job design; as congruence increases so should satisfaction. We hypothesized that power distance would moderate whether fit is related to satisfaction with degree of job formalization. We obtained measures of job-formalization, fit and satisfaction, as well as organizational commitment from employees (n = 772) in a multinational firm with subsidiaries in six countries. Confirming previous findings, individuals from low power-distance cultures were most satisfied with increasing fit. However, the extent to which individuals from high power-distance cultures were satisfied did not necessarily depend on increasing fit, but mostly on whether the degree of formalization received was congruent to cultural norms. Irrespective of culture, satisfaction with formalization predicted a broad measure of organizational commitment. Apart from our novel extension of fit theory, we show how moderation can be tested in the context of polynomial response surface regression and how specific hypotheses can be tested regarding different points on the response surface.
McIntosh C. N., Edwards J. R. & Antonakis J. (2014). Reflections on Partial Least Squares Path Modeling. Organizational Research Methods, 17(2), 210-251. [doi] [pdf] [abstract]
The purpose of the present article is to take stock of a recent exchange in Organizational Research Methods between critics (Rönkkö & Evermann, 2013) and proponents (Henseler et al., 2014) of partial least squares path modeling (PLS-PM). The two target articles were centered around six principal issues, namely whether PLS-PM: (1) can be truly characterized as a technique for structural equation modeling (SEM); (2) is able to correct for measurement error; (3) can be used to validate measurement models; (4) accommodates small sample sizes; (5) is able to provide null hypothesis tests for path coefficients; and (6) can be employed in an exploratory, model-building fashion. We summarize and elaborate further on the key arguments underlying the exchange, drawing from the broader methodological and statistical literature in order to offer additional thoughts concerning the utility of PLS-PM and ways in which the technique might be improved. We conclude with recommendations as to whether and how PLS-PM serves as a viable contender to SEM approaches for estimating and evaluating theoretical models.
White C. & Antonakis J. (2013). Quantifying Accuracy Improvement in Sets of Pooled Judgments: Does Dialectical Bootstrapping Work?. Psychological Science, 24(1), 115-116. [doi] [pdf] [abstract]
Galton (1907) first demonstrated the "wisdom of crowds" phenomenon by averaging independent estimates of unknown quantities given by many individuals. Herzog and Hertwig (2009; hereafter H&H in Psychological Science) showed that individuals' own estimates can be improved by asking them to make two estimates at separate times and averaging them. H&H claimed to observe far greater improvement in accuracy when participants received "dialectical" instructions to consider why their first estimate might be wrong before making their second estimates than when they received standard instructions. We reanalyzed H&H's data using measures of accuracy that are unrelated to the frequency of identical first and second responses and found that participants in both conditions improved their accuracy to an equal degree.
Antonakis J., Day D. V. & Schyns B. (2012). Leadership and individual differences: at the cusp of a renaissance. The Leadership Quarterly, 23(4), 643-650. [doi] [pdf] [abstract]
In this introductory editorial, we provide a brief overview of the history of individual difference research in leadership. We explain the major challenges that trait research faced, and why it was revived primarily because of methodological advancements. Next, we argue that leadership individual difference research is at a cusp of a renaissance. We explain why we are at this cusp and what researchers should do reify the renaissance in terms of theoretical extensions of trait models, the application of robust methodological advancements, and the development of process models linking distal (i.e., traits) predictors to proximal predictors (e.g., behaviors, skills, attitudes), and the latter to leader outcomes. We then summarize the papers we accepted for the special issue, and conclude with an optimistic note for leadership individual difference research.
Antonakis J., Fenley M. & Liechti S. (2012). Learning charisma: Transform yourself into someone people want to follow. Harvard Business Review, June, 127-130. [url] [abstract]
Jana stands at the podium, palms sweaty, looking out at hundreds of colleagues who are waiting to hear about her new initiative. Bill walks into a meeting after a failed product launch to greet an exhausted and demotivated team that desperately needs his direction. Robin gets ready to confront a brilliant but underperforming subordinate who needs to be put back on track. We've all been in situations like these. What they require is charisma-the ability to communicate a clear, visionary, and inspirational message that captivates and motivates an audience. In this article, we discuss how one learns to be more charismatic
Fiori M. & Antonakis J. (2012). Selective attention to emotional stimuli: What IQ and Openness do, and emotional intelligence does not. Intelligence, 40(3), 245-254. [doi] [pdf] [abstract]
We examined how general intelligence, personality, and emotional intelligence-measured as an ability using the MSCEIT-predicted performance on a selective-attention task requiring participants to ignore distracting emotion information. We used a visual prime in which participants saw a pair of faces depicting emotions; their task was to focus on one of the faces (the target) while ignoring the other (the distractor). Next, participants categorized a string of letters (word or nonword), which was either congruent to the target or the distractor. The speed of response to categorizing the string was recorded. Given the emotional nature of the stimuli and the emotional information processing involved in the task, we were surprised to see that none of the MSCEIT branches predicted performance. However, general intelligence and openness to experience reduced response time.
Antonakis J. & Dietz J. (2011). More on Testing for Validity Instead of Looking for It. Personality and Individual Differences, 50(3), 418-421. [doi] [pdf] [abstract]
Using Monte Carlo simulations and reanalyzing the data of a validation study of the AEIM emotional intelligence test, we demonstrated that an atheoretical approach and the use of weak statistical procedures can result in biased validity estimates. These procedures included stepwise regression-and the general case of failing to include important theoretical controls-extreme scores analysis, and ignoring heteroscedasticity as well as measurement error. The authors of the AEIM test responded by offering more complete information about their analyses, allowing us to further examine the perils of ignoring theory and correct statistical procedures. In this paper we show with extended analyses that the AEIM test is invalid.
Antonakis J. & Dietz J. (2011). Looking for Validity or Testing It? The Perils of Stepwise Regression, Extreme-Scores Analysis, Heteroscedasticity, and Measurement Error. Personality and Individual Differences, 50(3), 409-415. [doi] [pdf] [abstract]
When researchers introduce a new test they have to demonstrate that it is valid, using unbiased designs and suitable statistical procedures. In this article we use Monte Carlo analyses to highlight how incorrect statistical procedures (i.e., stepwise regression, extreme scores analyses) or ignoring regression assumptions (e.g., heteroscedasticity) contribute to wrong validity estimates. Beyond these demonstrations, and as an example, we re-examined the results reported by Warwick, Nettelbeck, and Ward (2010) concerning the validity of the Ability Emotional Intelligence Measure (AEIM). Warwick et al. used the wrong statistical procedures to conclude that the AEIM was incrementally valid beyond intelligence and personality traits in predicting various outcomes. In our re-analysis, we found that the reliability-corrected multiple correlation of their measures with personality and intelligence was up to .69. Using robust statistical procedures and appropriate controls, we also found that the AEIM did not predict incremental variance in GPA, stress, loneliness, or well-being, demonstrating the importance for testing validity instead of looking for it.
Antonakis J., Fenley M. & Liechti S. (2011). Can Charisma Be Taught? Tests of Two Interventions. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 10(3), 374-396. [doi] [pdf] [abstract]
We tested whether we could teach individuals to behave more charismatically, andwhether changes in charisma affected leader outcomes. In Study 1, a mixed-design fieldexperiment, we randomly assigned 34 middle-level managers to a control or anexperimental group. Three months later, we reassessed the managers using theircoworker ratings (Time 1 raters = 343; Time 2 raters = 321). In Study 2, a within-subjectslaboratory experiment, we videotaped 41 MBA participants giving a speech. We thentaught them how to behave more charismatically, and they redelivered the speech6 weeks later. Independent assessors (n = 135) rated the speeches. Results from thestudies indicated that the training had significant effects on ratings of leader charisma(mean D = .62) and that charisma had significant effects on ratings of leaderprototypicality and emergence................................................................................................................................
Fiori M. & Antonakis J. (2011). The ability model of emotional intelligence: Searching for valid measures. Personality and Individual Differences, 50(3), 329-334. [doi] [pdf] [abstract]
Current measures of ability emotional intelligence (EI)--including the well-known Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT)--suffer from several limitations, including low discriminant validity and questionable construct and incremental validity. We show that the MSCEIT is largely predicted by personality dimensions, general intelligence, and demographics having multiple R's with the MSCEIT branches up to .66; for the general EI factor this relation was even stronger (Multiple R = .76). As concerns the factor structure of the MSCEIT, we found support for four first-order factors, which had differential relations with personality, but no support for a higher-order global EI factor. We discuss implications for employing the MSCEIT, including (a) using the single branches scores rather than the total score, (b) always controlling for personality and general intelligence to ensure unbiased parameter estimates in the EI factors, and (c) correcting for measurement error. Failure to account for these methodological aspects may severely compromise predictive validity testing. We also discuss avenues for the improvement of ability-based tests.
Lee Y. T., Stettler A. & Antonakis J. (2011). Incremental Validity and Indirect effect of Ethical Development on Work Performance. Personality and Individual Differences, 50(7), 1110-1115. [doi] [pdf] [abstract]
We modeled work performance as outcomes of individual-differences mediated by technical performance. Beyond the "usual suspects" (e.g., general mental ability, and personality), we also measured the ethical development of participants (n = 460). We surmised that ethical development - which has not been extensively studied as a predictor of work performance while controlling for established predictors - captures unique variance in both technical and work performance. Results demonstrated incremental validity for ethical development in predicting technical performance, which in turn predicted work performance. The indirect effect of ethical development was significant too. Our results highlight the importance of process models of performance, which include proximal as well as distal individual differences.
Von Wittich D. & Antonakis J. (2011). The KAI Cognitive Style Inventory: Was it personality all along?. Personality and Individual Differences, 50(7), 1044-1049. [doi] [pdf] [abstract]
Kirton's Adaption-Innovation Inventory (KAI) is a widely-used measure of "cognitive style." Surprisingly, there is very little research investigating the discriminant and incremental validity of the KAI. In two studies (n = 213), we examined whether (a) we could predict KAI scores with the "big five" personality dimensions and (b) the KAI scores predicted leadership behavior when controlling for personality and ability. Correcting for measurement error, we found that KAI scores were predicted mostly by personality and gender (multiple R = 0.82). KAI scores did not predict variance in leadership while controlling for established predictors. Our findings add to recent literature that questions the uniqueness and utility of cognitive style or similar "style" constructs; researchers using such measures must control for the big five factors and correct for measurement error to avoid confounded interpretations.
Antonakis J., Bendahan S., Jacquart P. & Lalive R. (2010). On making causal claims: A review and recommendations. The Leadership Quarterly, 21(6), 1086-1120. [doi] [pdf] [abstract]
Social scientists often estimate models from correlational data, where the independent variable has not been exogenously manipulated; they also make implicit or explicit causal claims based on these models. When can these claims be made? We answer this question by first discussing design and estimation conditions under which model estimates can be interpreted, using the randomized experiment as the gold standard. We show how endogeneity--which includes omitted variables, omitted selection, simultaneity, common methods bias, and measurement error--renders estimates causally uninterpretable. Second, we present methods that allow researchers to test causal claims in situations where randomization is not possible or when causal interpretation is confounded, including fixed-effects panel, sample selection, instrumental variable, regression discontinuity, and difference-in-differences models. Third, we take stock of the methodological rigor with which causal claims are being made in a social sciences discipline by reviewing a representative sample of 110 articles on leadership published in the previous 10 years in top-tier journals. Our key finding is that researchers fail to address at least 66 % and up to 90 % of design and estimation conditions that make causal claims invalid. We conclude by offering 10 suggestions on how to improve non-experimental research.
Antonakis J. & Dietz J. (2010). Emotional intelligence: On definitions, neuroscience, and marshmallows. Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice, 3(2), 165-170. [doi] [pdf] [abstract]
In his timely article, Cherniss offers his vision for the future of "Emotional Intelligence" (EI). However, his goal of clarifying the concept by distinguishing definitions from models and his support for "Emotional and Social Competence" (ESC) models will, in our opinion, not make the field advance. To be upfront, we agree that emotions are important for effective decision-making, leadership, performance and the like; however, at this time, EI and ESC have not yet demonstrated incremental validity over and above IQ and personality tests in meta-analyses (Harms & Credé, 2009; Van Rooy & Viswesvaran, 2004). If there is a future for EI, we see it in the ability model of Mayer, Salovey and associates (e.g, Mayer, Caruso, & Salovey, 2000), which detractors and supporters agree holds the most promise (Antonakis, Ashkanasy, & Dasborough, 2009; Zeidner, Roberts, & Matthews, 2008). With their use of quasi-objective scoring measures, the ability model grounds EI in existing frameworks of intelligence, thus differentiating itself from ESC models and their self-rated trait inventories. In fact, we do not see the value of ESC models: They overlap too much with current personality models to offer anything new for science and practice (Zeidner, et al., 2008). In this commentary we raise three concerns we have with Cherniss's suggestions for ESC models: (1) there are important conceptual problems in both the definition of ESC and the distinction of ESC from EI; (2) Cherniss's interpretation of neuroscience findings as supporting the constructs of EI and ESC is outdated, and (3) his interpretation of the famous marshmallow experiment as indicating the existence of ESCs is flawed. Building on the promise of ability models, we conclude by providing suggestions to improve research in EI.
Antonakis J., Ashkanasy N. M. & Dasborough M. (2009). Does leadership need emotional intelligence?. The Leadership Quarterly, 20(2), 247-261. [doi] [pdf] [url] [abstract]
Interest in emotional intelligence has bloomed over the last few years. That it has become a standard concept in general and applied psychology, as well as in applied business settings, is indubitable. Is this popularity warranted? Casting a shadow over the concept of emotional intelligence are concerns about its meaningfulness and the construct and predictive validity of its various measures. The following series of letters explores various issues surrounding emotional intelligence and leadership including: whether emotional intelligence is theoretically needed for leadership, the types of emotional intelligence tests that may hold the most promise, methodological standards for testing whether emotional intelligence matters, evidence from the neuroscience literature on emotions and intelligence, and evidence regarding the links between leader emotional intelligence and follower outcomes.
Antonakis J. & Dalgas O. (2009). Predicting elections: Child's play!. Science, 323(5918), 1183. [doi] [pdf] [url] [abstract]
In two experiments, children and adults rated pairs of faces from election races. Naïve adults judged a pair on competence; after playing a game, children chose who they would prefer to be captain of their boat. Children's (as well as adults') preferences accurately predicted actual election outcomes. For a podcast on our paper: English: http://www2.unil.ch/visio/?p=80 French: http://www2.unil.ch/visio/?p=81
Liden R. C. & Antonakis J. (2009). Considering context in psychological leadership research. Human Relations, 62(11), 1-18. [doi] [pdf] [abstract]
Despite Lewin's identification of the importance of context in behavioral research over 70 years ago, leadership psychology tended to ignore the context. Only in the past 10 years has the context been more routinely included in psychological leadership research. We provide examples of leadership research that has explored the context, introduce the special issue articles, and provide suggestions for future research on the context of leadership.
Antonakis J. & Lalive R. (2008). Quantifying Scholarly Impact: IQp versus the Hirsch h. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 59(6), 956-969. [doi] [pdf] [url] [abstract]
Hirsch's (2005) h index of scholarly output has generated substantial interest and wide acceptance because of its apparent ability to quantify scholarly impact simply and accurately. We show that the excitement surrounding h is premature for three reasons: h stagnates with increasing scientific age; it is highly dependent on publication quantity as well as field-specific citation rates. Thus, it is not useful for comparing scholars across disciplines. We propose the scholarly Index of Quality and Productivity (IQp) as an alternative to h. The new index takes into account a scholar's total impact and also corrects for field-specific citation rates, scholarly productivity, and scientific age. The IQp accurately predicts group membership on a common metric, as tested on a sample of 80 scholars from three populations: (a) Nobel winners in Physics (n=10), Chemistry (n=10), Medicine (n=10), and Economics (n=10), and towering Psychologists (n=10), and scholars who have made more modest contributions to science including randomly selected (b) fellows (n=15) and (c) members (n=15) of the Society of Industrial and Organizational Psychology. The IQp also correlates better with expert ratings of greatness than does the h index.
Antonakis J. (2006). Leadership: What is it and how it is implicated in strategic change?. International Journal of Management Cases, 8(4), 4-20. [pdf] [abstract]
In this article, I focus on the role of leaders and how they affect social change. The importance of leadership, as a strategic process, will become evident from two points of view: those of leaders and followers. I highlight the importance of the latter because leadership theories are generally leader-focused and ignore central questions like "why do some individuals emerge as leaders and how they are attributed charisma?" "Why are some individuals influential as leaders whereas others are not?" "Why do followers trust some leaders more than they do others?" It is important that leaders understand how they are legitimized because as it will become evident, leaders must reflect the collective aspirations of their constituencies (followers)--whether these aspirations are follower or leader induced--in order to influence them toward a common ideal while instituting veritable social change. Leadership does not exist in a void. Therefore, looking at the leadership process from the eyes of followers will be addressed in various aspects of this article. Also based on a universalist-generalist perspective not tied to any particular domain (e.g., political, military, sport, educational, etc.), I will also focus on what leaders do, or more specifically what leaders should do, by reviewing what leadership is in terms of its antecedents and consequences. My review will be rooted in various competing but complementary research traditions that have dotted the historical landscape of leadership research, culminating in a brief analysis of the 2004 U.S. presidential race.
de Treville S. & Antonakis J. (2006). Could lean production job design be intrinsically motivating? Contextual, configurational, and levels-of-analysis issues. Journal of Operations Management, 24(2), 99-123. [doi] [abstract]
Are lean production jobs intrinsically motivating? More than 20 years after the arrival of lean production, this question remains unresolved. Generally accepted models of job design such as the Job Characteristics Model (JCM, (Hackman, J.R., Oldham, G.R. 1976. Motivation through the design of work: test of a theory. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 16, 250?279.)) cannot explain the occurrence of worker intrinsic motivation in the context of lean production. In this paper, we extend the JCM to the lean production context to explain the theoretical relationship between job characteristics and motivational outcomes in lean production. We suggest that a configuration of lean production practices is more important for worker intrinsic motivation than are independent main effects, and that motivation may be limited by excessive leanness. We conclude that lean production job design may engender worker intrinsic motivation; however, there are likely to be substantial differences in intrinsic motivation under differing lean production configurations.
Antonakis J., de Treville S. & Edelson N.M. (2005). Can standard operating procedures be motivating? Reconciling process variability issues and behavioral outcomes. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 16(2), 231-241. [doi] [url] [abstract]
It is generally agreed that requiring employees to perform their tasks according to Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) can improve production outcomes in the context of repetitive manufacturing. Attempts to link SOP use to intrinsic motivation ? a requirement for creativity ? have, however, resulted in controversy. In this paper, we discuss the relationship between required SOP use and worker creativity, as mediated by worker intrinsic motivation, and suggest that the relationship between required SOP use and intrinsic motivation and creativity is moderated by (a) availability of accurate process documentation and (b) employee participation in developing of process documentation.
Antonakis J. (2004). On why "emotional intelligence" will not predict leadership effectiveness beyond IQ or the "big five": An extension and rejoinder. Organizational Analysis, 12(2), 171-182. [doi] [pdf] [abstract]
Emotional intelligence (EI) has been embraced by many practitioners and academicians without clear empirical support for the construct. In this rejoinder and extension of an earlier comment, I highlight the importance of using methodologically defensible scientific criteria for conducting or evaluating research. I review literature demonstrating that EI models are beset with problems concerning their validity and show that Prati et al's support for the EI construct is based more on tangential speculation than on empirical findings. Although I find some common positions with EI researchers such as Prati et al., I underline contradictions and inconsistencies in their arguments and cast doubt on the necessity of EI for understanding and predicting leadership effectiveness.
Antonakis J. (2003). Why "emotional intelligence" does not predict leadership effectiveness: A Comment on Prati, Douglas, Ferris, Ammeter, and Buckley. The International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 11(4), 355-361. [doi] [pdf] [abstract]
This article provides a commentary on the article "Emotional intelligence, leadership effectiveness, and team outcomes" by Prati, Douglas, Ferris, Ammeter, and Buckley. The role of emotional intelligence (EI) as a construct in organizational behavior is addressed by discussing (a) the boundary conditions of theories in organizational behavior; (b) the relative importance of EI, g and personality in leadership effectiveness; (c) whether EI is needed for leadership effectiveness; (d) the degree EI is a unique construct versus a part of normal psychological functioning; (e) the relationship between EI and levels of analyses in organizations; and (f) whether EI is important for charismatic leadership. This discussion concludes with a cautionary note about premature excitement over the use of EI in the workplace.
Antonakis J., Avolio B. J. & Sivasubramaniam N. (2003). Context and leadership: An examination of the nine-factor Full-Range Leadership Theory using the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. The Leadership Quarterly, 14(3), 261-295. [doi] [abstract]
In this study, we examined the validity of the measurement model and factor structure of Bass and Avolio's Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) (Form 5X). We hypothesized that evaluations of leadership?and hence the psychometric properties of leadership instruments?may be affected by the context in which leadership is observed and evaluated. Using largely homogenous business samples consisting of 2279 pooled male and 1089 pooled female raters who evaluated same-gender leaders, we found support for the nine-factor leadership model proposed by Bass and Avolio. The model was configurally and partially metrically invariant?suggesting that the same constructs were validly measured in the male and female groups. Mean differences were found between the male and female samples on four leadership factors (Study 1). Next, using factor-level data of 18 independently gathered samples (N=6525 raters) clustered into prototypically homogenous contexts, we tested the nine-factor model and found it was stable (i.e., fully invariant) within homogenous contexts (Study 2). The contextual factors comprised environmental risk, leader?follower gender, and leader hierarchical level. Implications for use of the MLQ and nine-factor model are discussed.
Antonakis J. & Atwater L. (2002). Leader distance: A review and a proposed theory. The Leadership Quarterly, 13(6), 673-704. [doi] [pdf] [abstract]
The concept of leader distance has been subsumed in a number of leadership theories; however, with few exceptions, leadership scholars have not expressly defined nor discussed leader distance, how distance is implicated in the legitimization of a leader, and how distance affects leader outcomes. We review available literature and demonstrate that integral to untangling the dynamics of the leadership influencing process is an understanding of leader-follower distance. We present distance in terms of three independent dimensions: leader-follower physical distance, perceived social distance, and perceived task interaction frequency. We discuss possible antecedents of leader-follower distance, including organizational and task characteristics, national culture, and leader/follower implicit motives. Finally, we use configural theory to present eight typologies (i.e., coexistence of a cluster or constellation of independent factors serving as a unit of analysis) of leader distance and propose an integrated cross-level model of leader distance, linking the distance typologies to leader outcomes at the individual and group levels of analysis.
Compte-rendu Antonakis J. & Lalive R. (2011). Counterfactuals and causal inference: Methods and principles for social research. Review of S. L. Morgan and C. Winship. Structural Equation Modeling, 18(1), 152-159. [doi] [pdf] [abstract]
"Most quantitative empirical analyses are motivated by the desire to estimate the causal effect¦of an independent variable on a dependent variable. Although the randomized experiment is the¦most powerful design for this task, in most social science research done outside of psychology,¦experimental designs are infeasible. (Winship & Morgan, 1999, p. 659)." This quote from earlier work by Winship and Morgan, which was instrumental in setting the groundwork for their book, captures the essence of our review of Morgan and Winship's book: It is about causality in nonexperimental settings.
Antonakis J. (2003). A theory of top-level leadership: Review of S. Zaccaro: The nature of executive leadership. Contemporary Psychology, 48(6), 784-786.
Antonakis J. (2002). Person-perception in organizational processes: Review of M. London: How people evaluate others in organizations. Contemporary Psychology, 47(4), 381-383.
Livres Day D. V. & Antonakis J. (Eds.). (2012). The nature of leadership (2nd Edition). Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks. [pdf] [url] [abstract]
With contributions from leading authors in the most important areas of current research, this book provides insight into the streams that are driving leadership theory and practice today. The Nature of Leadership, Second Edition provides students with an updated and complete yet concise handbook that solidifies and integrates the vast and disparate leadership literature.Key Features of the Second Edition· Provides contributions from twenty-three subject-matter experts-ranging from the eminent to the up-and-coming-giving students an unsurpassed breadth of knowledge and perspective· Organizes the material into the three key thematic areas of Leadership-Science, Nature, and Nurture; the Major Schools of Leadership; and Leadership and Special Domains· Includes nine brand new chapters that provide students with the state-of-the-art of leadership theory and practice such as evolutionary and biological perspectives, individual differences, and shared leadership· Updates the content of seven retained chapters, with reference to recent research and developments in the field· Adds pedagogical features, including discussion questions, a list of practice-focused supplemental readings, and references to case studies
Hooijberg R., Hunt J. G., Antonakis J., Boal K. B. & Lane N. (2007). Being there even when you are not: Leading through strategy, structures, and systems (4). Elsevier Science, Amsterdam. [url]
Antonakis J., Canciolo A.T. & Sternberg R.J. (2004). The nature of leadership. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks. [url]
Parties de livre Antonakis J. (2015). Causality. Wiley Encyclopedia of Management (3 ed., Vol. VI, International Management). (Vol. 6, pp. 36-39). Vodosek, M. den Hartog, D. N. [doi] [pdf] [abstract]
Making correct causal claims is important for research and practice. This article explains what causality is, and how it can be established via experimental design. Because experiments are infeasible in many applied settings, researchers often use "observational" methods to estimate causal models. In these situations, it is likely that model estimates are compromised by endogeneity. The article discusses the conditions that engender endogeneity and methods that can eliminate it.
Chapitre Eagly A. H. & Antonakis J. (2015). Leadership. In Mikulincer M., Shaver P. R., Borgida E. & Bargh J. A. (Eds.), APA handbook of personality and social psychology, Volume 1: Attitudes and social cognition. APA handbooks in psychology (pp. 571-592). APA Books, Washington, DC. [doi] [pdf] [url]
Antonakis J., Bendahan S., Jacquart P. & Lalive R. (2014). Causality and endogeneity: Problems and solutions. The Oxford Handbook of Leadership and Organizations (pp. 93-117). Day, D.V. [doi] [pdf] [abstract]
Most leadership and management researchers ignore one key design and estimation problem rendering parameter estimates uninterpretable: Endogeneity. We discuss the problem of endogeneity in depth and explain conditions that engender it using examples grounded in the leadership literature. We show how consistent causal estimates can be derived from the randomized experiment, where endogeneity is eliminated by experimental design. We then review the reasons why estimates may become biased (i.e., inconsistent) in non-experimental designs and present a number of useful remedies for examining causal relations with non-experimental data. We write in intuitive terms using nontechnical language to make this chapter accessible to a large audience.
Antonakis J. & House R. J. (2013). A re-analysis of the full-range leadership theory: The way forward. Transformational and charismatic Leadership: The road ahead (Vol. 5, pp. 35-37). Avolio B. J.Yammarino F. J., Bingley, UK: Emerald. [pdf]
Day D. V. & Antonakis J. (2013). The future of leadership. The Wiley-Blackwell Handbook of the Psychology of Leadership, Change, and Organizational Development (pp. 221-235). Leonard H. SkiptonLewis RachelFreedman Arthur M.Passmore Jonathan, Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons. [doi] [pdf] [abstract]
The good news with regard to this (or any) chapter on the future of leadership is that there is one. There was a time when researchers called for a moratorium on new leadership theory and research (e.g., Miner, 1975) citing the uncertain future of the field. Then for a time there was a popular academic perspective that leadership did not really matter when it came to shaping organizational outcomes (Meindl & Ehrlich, 1987; Meindl, Ehrlich, & Dukerich, 1985; Pfeffer, 1977). That perspective was laid to rest by "realists" in the field (Day & Antonakis, 2012a) by means of empirical re-interpretation of the results used to support the position that leadership does not matter (Lieberson & O'Connor, 1972; Salancik & Pfeffer, 1977). Specifically, Day and Lord (1988) showed that when proper methodological concerns were addressed (e.g., controlling for industry and company size effects; incorporating appropriate time lags) that the impact of top-level leadership was considerable - explaining as much as 45% of the variance in measures of organizational performance. Despite some recent pessimistic sentiments about the "curiously unformed" state of leadership research and theory (Hackman & Wageman, 2007), others have argued that the field has continued to evolve and is potentially on the threshold of some significant breakthroughs (Day & Antonakis, 2012a).¦Leadership scholars have been re-energized by new directions in the field and research efforts have revitalized areas previously abandoned for apparent lack of consistency in findings (e.g., leadership trait theory). Our accumulated knowledge now allows us to explain the nature of leadership including its biological bases and other antecedents, and consequences with some degree of confidence. There are other comprehensive sources that review the extensive theoretical and empirical foundation of leadership (Bass, 2008; Day & Antonakis, 2012b) so that will not be the focus of the present chapter. Instead, we will take a future-oriented perspective in identifying particular areas within the leadership field that we believe offer promising perspectives on the future of leadership.¦Nonetheless, it is worthwhile as background to first provide an overview of how we see the leadership field changing over the past decade or so. This short chronicle will set the stage for a keener understanding of where the future contributions are likely to emerge. Overall, across nine major schools of leadership - trait, behavioural, contingency, contextual, relational, sceptics, information processing, New Leadership, biological and evolutionary - researchers have seen a resurgence in interest in one area, a high level of activity in at least four other areas, inactivity in three areas, and one that was modestly active in the previous decade but we think holds strong promise for the future (Gardner, Lowe, Moss, Mahoney, & Cogliser, 2010). We will next provide brief overviews of these nine schools and their respective levels of research activity (see Figure 1).
Antonakis J. (2012). Transformational and Charismatic Leadership. In Day D. V. & Antonakis J. (Eds.), The nature of leadership (2nd Edition, pp. 256-288). Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks. [pdf] [url]
Antonakis J. & Jacquart P. (2012). The far side of leadership: Rather difficult to face. In Bligh M.C. & Riggio R.E. (Eds.), When Near is Far and Far is Near: Distance in Leader-Follower Relationships Publications (pp. 155-187). Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Hoboken, NJ. [pdf]
Day D. V. & Antonakis J. (2012). Leadership: Past, present, and future. In Day D. V. & Antonakis J. (Eds.), The nature of leadership (2nd, pp. 3-25). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. [pdf] [url]
Fairhurst G. T. & Antonakis J. (2012). A Research Agenda for Relational Leadership. In Uhl-Bien M. & Ospina S. (Eds.), Advancing Relational Leadership Theory: A Dialogue among Perspectives (pp. 433-459). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing. [pdf]
Antonakis J. (2011). Predictors of leadership: The usual suspects and the suspect traits. In Bryman A., Collinson D., Grint K., Jackson B. & Uhl-Bien M. (Eds.), Sage Handbook of Leadership (pp. 269-285). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. [pdf] [abstract]
In this chapter, I review literature on traits (i.e., individual differences) and their links to leader outcomes. I present an integrated model, the ascription-actuality trait theory, to explain two routes to leader outcomes that stem from traits: the route that objectively matters and the route that appears to matter but objectively may not. I discuss the history of trait research and provide criteria by which we should judge the validity of trait models. Finally, I review trait models that are the most predictive of leadership outcomes and identify those that are non-starters.
Antonakis J. (2009). "Emotional intelligence": What does it measure and does it matter for leadership?. A Volume in LMX Leadership: The Series, Predator's Game-Changing Designs (Vol. VII, pp. 163-192). Graen G. B., Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing. [pdf]
Antonakis J. (2007). Leadership and Communication: Two sides of a coin (Original title: "Führung und Kommunikation: Zwei Seiten einer Medaille"). In A. Jaeggi & V. Egli (Ed.), Internal communication in Switzerland (pp. 27-42). NZZ Buchverlag, Zürich. [pdf] [url]
Antonakis J. & Hooijberg R. (2007). Cascading vision for real commitment. In Hooijberg R., Hunt J.G., Antonakis J., Boal K.B. & Lane N. (Eds.), Being there even when you are not: Leading through strategy, structures, and systems (pp. 235-249). Elsevier Science, Amsterdam. [url]
Hooijberg R., Hunt J. G., Antonakis J., Boal K. B. & Lane N. (2007). Leading through strategy, structures, and systems: Concluding thoughts. In Hooijberg R., Hunt J. G., Antonakis J., Boal K. B. & Lane N. (Eds.), Being there even when you are not: Leading through strategy, structures, and systems (pp. 295-306). Elsevier Science, Amsterdam. [url]
Hooijberg R., Hunt J. G., Antonakis J., Boal K. B. & Lane N. (2007). Introduction. In Hooijberg R., Hunt J. G., Antonakis J., Boal K. B. & Lane N. (Eds.), Being there even when you are not: Leading through strategy, structures, and systems (pp. 1-9). Elsevier Science, Amsterdam. [url]
Antonakis J. & Autio E. (2006). Entrepreneurial leadership. In Baum J. R., Frese M. & Baron R. A. (Eds.), The Psychology of Entrepreneurship (pp. 189-208). SIOP Organizational Frontiers Series, Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum. [url]
Antonakis J., Cianciolo A. T. & Sternberg R. J. (2004). Leadership: Past, present, and future. In Antonakis J., Cianciolo A. T. & Sternberg R. J. (Eds.), The nature of leadership (pp. 3-15). Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA, USA. [pdf]
Antonakis J., Schriesheim C. A., Donovan J. A., Gopalakrishna-Pillai K., Pellegrini E. K. & Rossomme J. L. (2004). Methods for studying leadership. In Antonakis J., Cianciolo A. T. & Sternberg R. J. (Eds.), The nature of leadership (pp. 48-70). Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA, USA. [pdf]
Autio E. & Antonakis J. (2004). How do entrepreneurs do it? Toward a model of entrepreneurial leadership. The psychology of entrepreneurship. Society of industrial and organisational psychology.
Cianciolo A. T., Antonakis J. & Sternberg R. J. (2004). Practical intelligence and leadership: Using experience as a "mentor". In Day D. V., Zaccaro S. J. & Halpin S. M. (Eds.), Leader Development for Transforming Organizations (pp. 211-236). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [url]
Antonakis J. & House R. J. (2002). An analysis of the full-range leadership theory: The way forward. In Yammarino B. J. & Avolio F. J. (Eds.), Transformational and Charismatic Leadership: The Road Ahead (pp. 3-33). JAI Press/Elsevier Science. [url]
Actes de conférence (partie) Antonakis J. (2013). Discussant: "Everything seems simpler from a distance: The relationship between leadership, power and distance.". Academy of Management, Orlando, FL, U.S.A.
Antonakis J. (2013). Distinguished speaker: "Then and Now: Leadership". Academy of Management, Orlando, FL, U.S.A.
Bastardoz N. & Antonakis J. (2013). How small can a sample size be for a structural equation model?. Congress of the Swiss Psychological Society, Basel, Switzerland.
Jacquart P. & Antonakis J. (2013). Selecting leaders: The effects of charisma under conditions of attributional ambiguity. Congress of the Swiss Psychological Society, Basel, Switzerland.
Antonakis J. (2011). Purposeful sampling in case-study research: A thread to validity?. European Congress of Work and Organizational Psychology, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
Fenley M. & Antonakis J. (2011). The effect of religion on women's empowerment: A cross-country study. European Congress of Work and Organizational Psychology, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
Fiori M. & Antonakis J. (2011). A process-oriented approach to emotional intelligence. The International Society for the Study of Individual Differences. London, UK.
Rowold J & Antonakis J (2011). Instrumental leadership: An extension of the Full-Range Leadership Theory. Conference of the Work, Organizational and Business Psychology Division of the German Psychological Association. Rostock, Germany. [abstract]
From a theoretical perspective, an extension to the Full Range leadership Theory (FRLT) seems needed. In this paper, we explain why instrumental leadership--a class of leadership includes leader behaviors focusing on task and strategic aspects that are neither values nor exchange oriented--can fulfill this extension. Instrument leadership is composed of four factors: environmental monitoring, strategy formulation and implementation, path-goal facilitation and outcome monitoring; these aspects of leadership are currently not included in any of the FRLT's nine leadership scales (as measured by the MLQ--Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire). We present results from two empirical studies using very large samples from a wide array of countries (N > 3,000) to examine the factorial, discriminant and criterion-related validity of the instrumental leadership scales. We find support for a four-factor instrumental leadership model, which explains incremental variance in leader outcomes in over and above transactional and transformational leadership.
Antonakis J., Angerfelt M. & Liechti S. (2010). Testing if charisma can be taught: Evidence from a laboratory and field study. Academy of Management Conference, Organizational Behavior Division, Montréal, Canada.
Jacquart P. & Antonakis J. (2010). Predicting Presidential Elections: It's The Economy Stupid, But Charisma Matters Too. Academy of Management, Organizational Behavior Division, Montréal, Canada.
Von Wittich D. & Antonakis J. (2010). The Kirton Adaption-Innovation Cognitive Style Inventory: Was it personality all along?. Academy of Management, Organizational Behavior Division, Montréal, Canada.
Angerfelt M., Antonakis J. & Liechti S. (2009). Personality and ability in a leadership intervention. Congress of the Swiss Psychological Society, Neuchâtel, Switzerland.
Antonakis J. (2009). Individual-difference predictors of the extended full-range leadership model. Congress of the Swiss Psychological Society, Neuchâtel, Switzerland.
Antonakis J. (2009). Which traits matter for the full-range leadership model?. European Congress of Work and Organizational Psychology, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
Jacquart P. & Antonakis J. (2009). Does leader charisma predict presidential election outcomes?. European Congress of Work and Organizational Psychology, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
Gleich H., Rowold J. & Antonakis J. (2008). Instrumental leadership: Validity and reliability of a new scale. International Congress of Psychology, Berlin, Germany.
Jacquart P., Antonakis J. & Ramus C. A. (2008). Does CEO personality matter? Implications for corporate financial performance. International Congress of Psychology, Berlin, Germany.
Jacquart P., Antonakis J. & Ramus C. A. (2008). Does CEO personality matter? Implications for corporate financial performance. Academy of Management, Organizational Behavior Division, Anaheim, California, USA.
Angerfelt M. & Antonakis J. (2007). Gender empowerment: The role of religion and cultural values. Congress of the Swiss Society of Psychology: Differences, Diversity, and Change, Zürich, Switzerland. [url]
Angerfelt M., Antonakis J. & Sivasubramaniam N. (2007). Gender effects on leadership ratings: A two-country study. European Congress of Work and Organizational Psychology, Stockholm, Sweden.
Antonakis J. & Cacciatore S. (2007). The ubiquitous performance-cue effect in ratings of leadership? Why degree of information is very informative. European Congress of Work and Organizational Psychology, Stockholm, Sweden.
Antonakis J., Liechti S. & Angerfelt M. (2007). On teaching leadership: Tests of an intervention. European Congress of Work and Organizational Psychology, Stockholm, Sweden.
Dong M. & Antonakis J. (2007). Correctly estimating models in international accounting contexts: combining company and country-level effects. 30th European Accounting Association (EAA) annual conference, Lisbon, April 2007.
Dong M. & Antonakis J. (2007). What drives corporate disclosure directly? A multicountry, multilevel model. 30th European Accounting Association (EAA) annual conference, Lisbon, April 2007. [url]
Dong M. & Antonakis J. (2007). Why multilevel effects should not be ignored in international empirical studies. 30th European Accounting Association (EAA) annual conference, Lisbon, April 2007. [url]
Lee Y. T., Antonakis J. & Steller A. (2007). Predicting trainee audior's performance. General mental ability, tacit knowledge and experience. Academy of Management, Organizational Behavior Division, Philadelphia, USA.
Lee Y. T. & Antonakis J. (2006). Satisfaction and individual preference for structuring: What is fit depends on where you're from. Academy of Management, Organizational Behavior Division, Atlanta, USA.
Lee Y. T., Antonakis J. & Stettler A. (2006). Individual-Difference Predictors of Trainee Auditors' Performance. Annual Congress of the European Accounting Association, Dublin, Ireland.
Antonakis J., Angerfelt M. & Sivasubramaniam N. (2005). Biases in leader evaluations: The effects of gender, context, and performance cues. Proceedings of the 7th Annual Global Conference of the International Leadership Association, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Antonakis J., Angerfelt M. & Sivasubramaniam N. (2005). When she was good she was very good indeed but when she was bad she was horrid! Biasing effects on ratings of leadership. Women as Global Leaders Conference, Zayed University, Dubai, UAE.
Antonakis J. & Sivasubramaniam N. (2005). The social cognition of leadership complexity: Is the whole more important than the sum of the parts?. Leadership and Complexity Symposium, Center for Creative Leadership, Greensboro, USA.
de Treville S. & Antonakis J. (2005). Intrinsic motivation in lean production? Contextual, configurational, and levels-of-analysis issues. Academy of Management, Operations Management Division, Honolulu, USA.
Lee Y. T., Antonakis J., Stettler A. & Missonier-Pierra F. (2005). The Impact of General Mental Ability, Personality and Ethical Orientation on Assistant Auditors' Performance: Implications for Education and Selection. International Research Conference for Accounting Educators, Bordeaux, France.
Antonakis J. (2004). Current hot topics in leadership. International Leadership Association, 6th Annual Global Conference of the International Leadership Association, Washington DC, USA.
Antonakis J. (2004). Existing leadership topics that are obsolete. 6th Annual Global Conference of the International Leadership Association, Washington DC, USA.
Antonakis J. & House R. J. (2004). On instrumental leadership: Beyond transactions and transformations. Gallup Leadership Institute Conference, University of Nebraska, Nebraska, USA.
de Treville S., Antonakis J. & Edelson N. M. (2003, Juin). Reconciling motivation, creativity, and process variability issues in process documentation. EUROMA-POMS Joint International Conference, Como, Italy.
Antonakis J. & Atwater L. (2002). Distance and leadership. Leadership Quarterly Symposium at the University of Mississippi, Oxford, USA.
Abstract Kleinlogel E. P, Dietz J. & Antonakis J. (2014, Juil). Moral disengagement: Towards a context-general category-based measure of the concept [Abstract]. . 17e European Association of Social Psychology (EASP). Amsterdam, Netherlands. [abstract]
Bandura (1986) developed the concept of moral disengagement to explain how individuals can engage in detrimental behavior while experiencing low levels of negative feelings such as guilt-feelings. Most of the research conducted on moral disengagement investigated this concept as a global concept (e.g., Bandura, Barbaranelli, Caprara, & Pastorelli, 1996; Moore, Detert, Klebe Treviño, Baker, & Mayer, 2012) while Bandura (1986, 1990) initially developed eight distinct mechanisms of moral disengagement grouped into four categories representing the various means through which moral disengagement can operate. In our work, we propose to develop measures of this concept based on its categories, namely rightness of actions, rejection of personal responsibility, distortion of negative consequences, and negative perception of the victims, and which is not specific a particular area of research. Through our measures, we aim at better understanding the cognitive process leading individuals to behave unethically by investigating which category plays a role in explaining unethical behavior depending on the situations in which individuals are. To this purpose, we conducted five studies to develop the measures and to test its predictive validity. Particularly, we assessed the ability of the newly developed measures to predict two types of unethical behaviors, i.e. discriminatory behavior and cheating behavior. Confirmatory Factor analyses demonstrated a good fit of the model and findings generally supported our predictions.
Rapports Hedlund J., Antonakis J. & Sternberg R. J. (2003). Tacit Knowledge and practical intelligence: Understanding the lessons of experience (2003-04). ARI for the Behavioral and Social Sciences.
Antonakis J., Hedlund J., Pretz J. & Sternberg R. J. (2002). Exploring the nature and acquisition of tacit knowledge for military leadership (2002-04). Army Research Institute (ARI) for the Behavioral and Social Sciences.
Cianciolo A. T., Antonakis J. & Sternberg R. J. (2002). Developing effective military leaders: Facilitating the acquisition of experience-based, tacit knowledge (2002-11). Army Research Institute (ARI) for the Behavioral and Social Sciences.
Cahiers de recherche Antonakis J. & Cacciatore S. (2003). Heuristics and Biases in Evaluations of Leaders: The Effects of Uncertainty (0306). Université de Lausanne - HEC - IUMI (Institut universitaire de management international).
Manuels techniques Antonakis J. & Bastardoz N. (2013). Swain: Stata module to correct the SEM chi-square overidentification test in small sample sizes or complex models. Statistical Software Components S457617, Boston College Department of Economics. [url] [abstract]
Swain corrects the chi-square overidentification test (i.e., likelihood ratio test of fit) for structural equation models whethr with or without latent variables. The chi-square statistic is asymptotically correct; however, it does not behave as expected in small samples and/or when the model is complex (cf. Herzog, Boomsma, & Reinecke, 2007). Thus, particularly in situations where the ratio of sample size (n) to the number of parameters estimated (p) is relatively small (i.e., the p to n ratio is large), the chi-square test will tend to overreject correctly specified models. To obtain a closer approximation to the distribution of the chi-square statistic, Swain (1975) developed a correction; this scaling factor, which converges to 1 asymptotically, is multiplied with the chi-square statistic. The correction better approximates the chi-square distribution resulting in more appropriate Type 1 reject error rates (see Herzog & Boomsma, 2009; Herzog, et al., 2007).
Thèses von Wittich D., Antonakis, J. (Dir.) (2013). Three essays on leader individual differences and effectiveness. Université de Lausanne, Faculté des hautes études commerciales. [pdf]
Fenley M., Antonakis, J. (Dir.) (2012). Women in leadership: Three essays. Université de Lausanne, Faculté des hautes études commerciales. [abstract]
GENDER EMPOWERMENT: EFFECTS OF GODS, GEOGRAPHY, AND GDP¦Fenley, M., & Antonakis, J.¦ABSTRACT¦We examined the determinants of women's empowerment in the economy and political leadership in 178 countries. Given the androcentric nature of most religions, we hypothesized that high degrees of country-level theistic belief create social conditions that impede the progression of women to power. The dependent variable was the Gender Empowerment index of the United Nations Development Program, which captures the participation of women in political leadership, management, and their share of national income. Controlling for GDP per capita as well as the fixed-effects of the dominant type of religion and legal origin and instrumenting all endogenous variables with geographic or historical variables, our results show that atheism has a significant positive effect on gender empowerment. These results are driven by the rule of law, which in addition to being a catalyst for economic development, appears to crowd-out the informal regulation of behavior due to religious norms.¦DEVELOPING WOMEN LEADERS: COMPARING A TRANSFORMATIONAL AND A CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP INTERVENTION¦Fenley, M., Jacquart, P., & Antonakis, J.¦ABSTRACT¦Along with a gender imbalance in leadership role occupancy, most leadership interventions have been conducted with samples of men. We conducted an experiment wherein we assigned female participants (n = 38, mean age = 35 years) to one of two conditions: Transformational (i.e., "standard") leadership training or charismatic leadership training. The two interventions were essentially equivalent, except that we also focused on developing the "charismatic leadership tactics" (e.g., rhetorical skills) of participants in the charismatic condition. After the interventions, we randomly assigned participants into problem-solving teams that required extensive interaction. Each team had an equal number of participants having received transformational training or charismatic training. At the end of the team exercises, participants rated each of their team members on a leadership prototypicality measure. Results indicated that those who received charismatic training scored higher (a) on prototypicality (standardized = .42) and (b) on a test of declarative knowledge of charismatic rhetorical strategies (i.e., a manipulation check, standardized = .76). Furthermore, the score on the test fully mediated the effect of the treatment on prototypicality (standardized indirect = .32). We discuss the importance and practical implications of these results.¦CHANGING ATTITUDES TOWARDS WOMEN IN A MALE SEX-TYPE WORK ENVIRONMENT: EVIDENCE FROM A FIELD EXPERIMENT IN EUROPEAN ATHLETICS¦Fenley, M.¦ABSTRACT¦Most sports organizations have a similar gender gap in leadership as do the majority of non-sport organizations. Women's careers sputter somewhere at coaching level positions and few women obtain top leadership positions. Greater awareness of gender inequalities in general, and in leadership in particular, could decrease gender discrimination and increase women's presence at upper levels. The goal of this study was to evaluate the impact of an intervention using an online gender awareness exercise. Participants (n = 1,001 participants, n = 32 countries) were randomly assigned to one of eight conditions in a 2 (a discriminating perspective-taking story or a non-discriminating perspective-taking story) by 2 (gender quiz or no gender quiz) by 2 (diversity quiz or no diversity quiz) factorial design. The results show that the online perspective taking exercise changed initial sexist attitudes. Participants having taken a diversity quiz had less sexist attitudes (as measured by the Modern- and Old-fashioned sexism scale) than did participants who did not take the diversity quiz (irrespective of perspective-taking story). The combination of having taken a diversity quiz with a gender quiz had the biggest impact on attitudes for the non-discriminating story.
Bendahan S., Antonakis J. (Dir.) (2010). Three essays on leadership. Université de Lausanne, Faculté des hautes études commerciales. [abstract]
ABSTRACT¦Samuel Bendahan, John Antonakis, Christian Zehnder, and François Pralong¦The relationship between power and immoral decisions has been discussed extensively¦by scientists and philosophers alike. Although the exercise of power is ubiquitous in social hierarchies, direct evidence on the impact of power on decision making is scarce. We use laboratory experiments to study whether more power leads to corruption. We manipulate power in the context of leader decision-making authority involving monetary stakes. Prior to the experiment, we also gathered extensive data on psychological and endocrinological individual differences. We find that an increase of power caused leaders to be more likely to engage in destructive, selfish behaviour, although the same subjects did not behave in this manner before their level of power was increased. We also show how individual differences affect the initial level of destructive behaviour and the corruption process.¦WHAT'S RIGHT FOR THE LEFT MAY NOT BE RIGHT FOR THE RIGHT: VALUE CONGRUENCE AND CHARISMA IN POLITICAL LEADERSHIP¦Samuel Bendahan¦ABSTRACT¦Value congruence between leaders and followers is important not only for follower commitment but also as part of the attributions followers make of leaders. I theorized that transformational leadership, which often is referred to as being value driven and having strong moral foundations, has differential effects depending on the values of the follower and whether these values are congruent with what the leader espouses. I designed an experiment to analyze how the political values of followers and leaders can influence followers' attributions regarding leaders. Within the context of political leadership, I found that transformational leaders were seen as more prototypical. Value congruence predicted prototypicality, which was strongly related to follower intentions to vote for the leader. Furthermore, followers with left-wing political values were more influenced by prototypical leaders than were followers with right-wing political values, presumably because of moral overtones of both left-wing ideology and transformational leadership.¦JUDGING LEADERSHIP POTENTIAL IN AN INTERVIEW: MODERATING EFFECT OF INTERVIEWER INTELLIGENCE ON INTERVIEWER COGNITIVE BUSYNESS, CANDIDATE PERFORMANCE-CUES EFFECTS, AND CANDIDATE¦ETHNICITY¦Samuel Bendahan, Philippe Jacquart, and John Antonakis¦ABSTRACT¦A large body of literature suggests that interviewers do not accurately rate candidates when using unstructured interviews and evaluation procedures that affect pre-interview expectations; however, the process by which these biases are produced is not well understood. We theorized several reasons for the sub-par performance of the unstructured interview. These factors, which we manipulated in the context of a videotaped interview of a candidate applying for a leadership position, include evaluator cognitive load, pre-interview performance cues regarding the candidate, and the ethnicity of the candidate. We also controlled for the intelligence of the evaluator. We found a significant four-way interaction between the manipulated factors and evaluators' cognitive abilities. The effects of the manipulated factors were all significantly less for evaluators who were high on general intelligence.
Jacquart P., Antonakis J. (Dir.) (2010). Leadership at the upper echelons : three essays. Université de Lausanne, Faculté des hautes études commerciales. [abstract]
"IT'S THE ECONOMY STUPID", BUT CHARISMA MATTERS TOO: A DUAL¦PROCESS MODEL OF PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION OUTCOMES.¦ABSTRACT¦Because charisma is assumed to be an important determinant of effective leadership, the extent to which a presidential nominee is more charismatic than his opponent should be an important determinant of voter choices. We computed a composite measure of the rhetorical richness of acceptances speeches given by U.S. presidential candidates at their national party convention. We added this marker of charisma to Ray C. Fair's presidential vote-share equation (1978; 2009). We theorized that voters decide using psychological attribution (i.e., due to macroeconomics and incumbency) as well as inferential processes (i.e., due to leader charismatic behavior) when voting. Controlling for the macro-level variables and incumbency in the Fair model, our results indicated that difference between nominees' charisma is a significant determinant of electoral success, particularly in close elections. This extended model significantly improves the precision of the Fair model and correctly predicts 23 out of the last 24 U.S. presidential elections.¦Paper 2:¦IT CEO LEADERSHIP, CORPORATE SOCIAL AND FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE.¦ABSTRACT¦We investigated whether CEO leadership predicted corporate financial performance (CFP) and corporate social performance (CSP). Using longitudinal data on 258 CEOs from 117 firms across 19 countries and 10 industry sectors, we found that determinants of CEO leadership (i.e., implicit motives) significantly predicted both CFP and CSP. As expected, the most consistent positive predictor was Responsibility Disposition when interacting with n (need for) Power. n Achievement and n Affiliation were generally negatively related or unrelated to outcomes. CSP was positively related to accounting measures of CFP. Our findings suggest that executive leader characteristics have important consequences for corporate level outcomes.¦Paper 3.¦PUNISHING THE POWERFUL: ATTRIBUTIONS OF BLAME AND LEADERSHIP¦ABSTRACT¦We propose that individuals are more lenient in attributing blame to leaders than to nonleaders. We advance a motivational explanation building on the perspective of punishment and on system justification theory. We conducted two scenario experiments which supported our proposition. In study 1, wrongdoer leader status was negatively related to blame and the perceived seriousness of the wrongdoing. In study 2, controlling for the Big-Five personality factor and individual differences in moral evaluation (i.e., moral foundations), wrongdoer leader status was negatively related with desired severity of punishment, and fair punishments were perceived as more just for non-leaders than for leaders.
Khayesi J., Antonakis J. (Dir.) (2010). The double-edged sword of social capital: Three essays on entrepreneurship in developing nations. Université de Lausanne, Faculté des hautes études commerciales. [abstract]
ABSTRACT¦My study seeks to answer the main question: "how does entrepreneurs' social capital positively and negatively affect their resource mobilization efforts, and exploitation of entrepreneurial opportunity?" To answer this question, I develop a model for examining positive and negative effects of social capital on resource accumulation by entrepreneurs, and the subsequent effect of resource accumulation on the exploitation of entrepreneurial opportunity, and utilize data from Africa to ëmpirically test the relationships in this model. Developing nations are a suitable context because: a) They require entrepreneurship for economic development, b) They have received less attention in management and entrepreneurship research, c) Because of inadequately-developed institutions, entrepreneurs from developing nations face major resource mobilization challenges hence they often turn to their social ties for resources, and d) The communalistic and collectivistic nature of most developing nations -encouraging support and sharing of resources- may help us better understand how society's values and structures may contribute and also deduct firm resources.¦My study reveals that social capital contributes resources to entrepreneurs in developing nations at a cost that takes away resources, and that more resources but lower costs facilitate entrepreneurial opportunity exploitation. For entrepreneurs in developing nations, large networks, greater shared identity, and more trust are beneficial. To increase chances of raising more resources, entrepreneurs from communalistic societies should include network members from outside their communities. Besides providing financial support, policy-makers should develop training programs and advisory services on configuration of entrepreneurs' networks so as to achieve more resources at a low cost. My study insights can help improve entrepreneurs' resource accumulation efforts and the subsequent growth of their firms, leading to the overall economic growth of developing nations.
Mezzour S., Antonakis J. (Dir.) (2010). Three essays on internationalization and firm entrepreneurial behavior. Université de Lausanne, Faculté des hautes études commerciales. [abstract]
PAPER 1: A THEORY ON THE EFFECTS OF INTERNATIONALIZATION ON FIRM ENTREPRENEURIAL BEHAVIOR AND GROWTH¦Abstract¦This article addresses the relationship. Past findings reveal that the direct effects of internationalization on performance are mixed and inconclusive. Our framework integrates firm entrepreneurial behavior as a mediating force of the troublesome Drawing on the tension between the entrepreneurship literature and the organizational inertia theory, we argue that internationalization is key to minimizing the stifling effects of inertia and in engendering entrepreneurial behavior towards growth. We suggest that firms that internationalize at a young age and enjoy an intense degree of internationalization tend to become more entrepreneurial than do late and weakly internationalized firms. As a consequence, early and intense internationalizers experience superior growth. Aware of the inherent endogeneity of our propositions, we also discuss how consistent estimates can be obtained when testing the model empirically.¦PAPER 2: DOES INTERNATIONALIZATION MATTER FOR GROWTH? THE CASE OF SWISS SOFTWARE FIRMS.¦Abstract¦This paper seeks to address the issue of whether early and intense internationalization leads to superior firm growth. We revisit the hypotheses of previous studies within the emerging research domain of international entrepreneurship. Empirical analyses on the performance implications of internationalization have so far been limited and inconsistent. Our paper intends to make two contributions to the international entrepreneurship literature. First, we bring additional empirical evidence as to the inconclusive firm performance endogeneity in our causal model, using a sample of 103 Swiss international small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). On one hand, we find that the degree of internationalization significantly increases perceived firm growth (i.e., relative firm performance in a market); however, age at internationalization was unrelated to perceived firm growth. On the other hand, we reproduced the causal path of a highly cited study that showed how age at internationalization was significantly and negatively associated with objective firm growth (i.e., sales). Interestingly, our results support the study similar setting (OLS regression with comparable control variables); however, the effect for age at internationalization reverses when we correct for endogeneity.¦PAPER 3: EFFECT OF INTERNATIONALIZATION ON FIRM ENTREPRENEURIAL ORIENTATION AND PERFORMANCE: THE CASE OF SWISS SOFTWARE FIRMS.¦Abstract¦How does internationalization influence a firm orientation (EO) and is this related to firm growth? This paper inquires into the performance theorizing, we test a process model in which EO plays a mediating role in accounting for the relationship between internationalization and growth. We position this paper on the tension zone between the entrepreneurship literature and the organizational inertia theory. We lay out the argument that internationalization is source of opportunities that drives a firm and thus mitigates inertial pressure. Using a sample of Swiss software small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), we found that degree of internationalization (but not age of internationalization) increases EO, which subsequently increased firm growth.
Lee Y.-T., Antonakis J. & Bergmann A. (Dir.) (2004). Person-environment fit, culture, and levels of analysis: a cross-cultural comparative study in Asian and European countries. Université de Lausanne, Faculté des hautes études commerciales. [abstract]
Fit has long been an important subject in management and organizational studies and, usually implies, either explicitly or implicitly, positive organizational or individual outcomes. Particularly, the supplies-values (S-V) fit perspective, which suggests that an alignment between an individual's preferences (values) and what the job or environment supplies will result in optimal outcomes on individual well-being as well as positive work-related attitudes such as satisfaction and organizational commitment. However, the study of fit remains rather primitive because of the lack of a sound methodology and of a parochial understanding of fit that issues mainly from a single-culture context. This dissertation was designed to overcome these shortcomings by adopting appropriate methodologies and extending the study of fit into different cultural contexts (national and occupational) with a series of comparative studies in order to investigate whether P-E fit showed the same pattern across different contexts.¦Empirical data were collected from the headquarters of a Taiwanese multinational corporation and its European subsidiaries (France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and Switzerland) by an online survey, with a sample size of 789. Organizational members' preferences and perceived reality on dimensions of organizational structure such as formalization and centralization were assessed in order to test the hypothesis of S-V fit and supplementary fit at the individual level. Confirmative factor analysis (CFA) with structural equation modeling (SEM), within-and-between analysis (WABA), and polynomial regression and response surface methodology were applied to ensure cross-cultural equivalence of the measurements, level effects of the constructs, and a comprehensive understanding of fit that took into account both components of fit . Moderated multiple regression was also conducted to check the moderating effect of job level and individualism-collectivism on fit.¦The results of this study showed that cultural values were principally individual-level constructs. This finding suggests a necessity to reflect on the conceptualization of culture and to what extent culture can be defined as something "shared" by the group. In addition, differences in the patterns of S-V fit and supplementary fit were statistically significant, which suggests that P-E fit should not be treated as something universal but rather context-sensitive. The study of fit was advanced by encompassing national and occupational cultures and the conceptualization of "P-E fit sensitive" dimensions in organizations. As a consequence, organizational design and management practices should be varied according to achieve better performance. However, certain results were difficult to interpret because of the sophisticated shapes of the response surfaces. The lack of construct validity of the cultural dimensions made it even harder to explain precisely the variation among different contexts. Implications for future research and possible improvement of the present study were also discussed.
Autres Antonakis J. (2015). Is emotional intelligence a good measure of leadership ability?. Society for Human Resource Management HR Magazine, 60(9), 22. [pdf] [url]
Antonakis J. (2015). Emotional Intelligence: The Hype, the Hope, the Evidence. [pdf] [url]
Stettler A., Lee Y. T. & Antonakis J. (2010). Prévoir les performances individuelles des auditeurs assistants. Résultats d'une étude empirique conduite en Suisse. L'Expert-comptable suisse 10/8 p. 487-493. [pdf] [abstract]
Les auditeurs exercent une activité tournée dans une large mesure vers l'intérêt public. Il paraît donc important que la qualité des services qu'ils fournissent soit aussi élevée que possible. La question se pose dès lors de savoir s'il est possible, notamment au moment de leur engagement, de prévoir les performances individuelles futures des auditeurs.
Antonakis J. (2008). A beautiful mind (letter to the editor). Published in "Economist" 386(8562), 15. BIB_9E87DA5DF9AA. [pdf]
Antonakis J. & Hooijberg R. (2008). Cascading a new vision: Three steps for real commitment. Published in "Perspectives for Managers" 157, 1-4. [pdf]
Antonakis J. (2001). Dissertation: The validity of the transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership model as measured by the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ5X). Dissertation Abstracts International, 62(01), 233 (UMI No. 3000380) Winner of Walden University Frank Dilley "Best Dissertation" award.