114 publications classées par:
type de publication
: Revue avec comité de lecture
Articles Dietz J., Joshi C., Esses V. M., Hamilton L. K. & Gabarrot F. (2015). The skill paradox: Explaining and reducing employment discrimination against skilled immigrants. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 26(10), 1318-1334. [doi] [pdf] [web of science] [abstract]
Using a social identity theory approach, we theorized that recruiters might be particularly biased against skilled immigrant applicants. We refer to this phenomenon as a skill paradox, according to which immigrants are more likely to be targets of employment discrimination the more skilled they are. Furthermore, building on the common ingroup identity model, we proposed that this paradox can be resolved through human resource management (HRM) strategies that promote inclusive hiring practices (e.g., by emphasizing fit with a diverse clientele). The results from a laboratory experiment were consistent with our predictions: Local recruiters preferred skilled local applicants over skilled immigrant applicants, but only when these applicants were qualified for a specific job. This bias against qualified and skilled immigrant applicants was attenuated when fit with a diverse clientele was emphasized, but not when fit with a homogeneous clientele was emphasized or when the hiring strategy was not explained. We discuss the implications of our findings for research on employment discrimination against skilled immigrants, including the role of inclusiveness for reducing discriminatory biases.
Chui C. W. S. & Dietz J. (2014). Observing workplace incivility towards women: The roles of target reactions, actor motives, and actor-target relationships. Sex Roles, 71(1/2), 95-108. [doi] [pdf] [url] [web of science] [abstract]
The current study conceptualized observer reactions to uncivil behavior towards women as an ethical behavior and examined three factors (target reaction, actor motive, and actor-target relationship) that influence these reactions. Two vignette studies with women and men undergraduate and graduate students in western Switzerland were conducted. Study 1 (N=148) was a written vignette study that assessed how the reaction of female targets to incivility and the motives of actors influenced observer reactions. Results showed that a female target's reaction influenced observers' evaluations of the harm caused by an uncivil incident, and that an actor's motive affected observers' assessments of the necessity to intervene. Study 2 (N=81) was a video vignette study that assessed the effects of the reactions by female targets to incivility and the relationship between the target and the actor on observer reactions.We found that female targets' reactions influenced observers' evaluations of harm and the perceived necessity to intervene. Furthermore, the effect of a female target's reaction on observers' evaluations of harm was moderated by the relationship between the actor and the target: a female target who laughed at the uncivil behavior was perceived as less harmed, when she and the actor had a personal relationship than when they had a professional relationship. When the female target reacted hurt or neutrally, actor-target relationship did not affect observers' evaluations of harm. We conclude by discussing the implications of our findings for theory and practice.
Dietz J., Antonakis J., Hoffrage U., Krings F., Marewski J. N. & Zehnder C. (2014). Teaching evidence-based management with a focus on producing local evidence. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 13(3), 397-414. [doi] [pdf] [abstract]
We present an approach to teaching evidence-based management (EBMgt) that trains future managers how to produce local evidence. Local evidence is causally interpretable data, collected on-site in companies to address a specific business problem. Our teaching method is a variant of problem-based learning, a method originally developed to teach evidence-based medicine. Following this method, students learn an evidence-based problem-solving cycle for addressing actual business cases. Executing this cycle, students use and produce scientific evidence through literature searches and the design of local, experimental tests of causal hypotheses. We argue the value of teaching EBMgt with a focus on producing local evidence, how it can be taught, and what can be taught. We conclude by outlining our contribution to the literature on teaching EBMgt and by discussing limitations of our approach.
Dietz J. & Kleinlogel E. P. (2014). Wage cuts and managers' empathy: How a positive emotion can contribute to positive organizational ethics in difficult times. Journal of Business Ethics, 119(4), 461-472. [doi] [pdf] [web of science] [abstract]
Using the lens of positive organizational ethics, we theorized that empathy affects decisions in ethical dilemmas that concern the well-being of not only the organization but also other stakeholders. We hypothesized and found that empathetic managers were less likely to comply with requests by an authority figure to cut the wages of their employees than were non-empathetic managers. However, when an authority figure requested to hold wages constant, empathy did not affect wage cut decisions. These findings imply that empathy can serve as a safeguard for ethical decision making in organizations during trying times without generally undermining organizational effectiveness. We conclude by discussing the implications of our research.
Binggeli S., Dietz J. & Krings F. (2013). Immigrants: A forgotten minority. Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice, 6(1), 107-113. [doi] [pdf] [web of science]
Antonakis J. & Dietz J. (2011). More on Testing for Validity Instead of Looking for It. Personality and Individual Differences, 50(3), 418-421. [doi] [pdf] [abstract]
Using Monte Carlo simulations and reanalyzing the data of a validation study of the AEIM emotional intelligence test, we demonstrated that an atheoretical approach and the use of weak statistical procedures can result in biased validity estimates. These procedures included stepwise regression-and the general case of failing to include important theoretical controls-extreme scores analysis, and ignoring heteroscedasticity as well as measurement error. The authors of the AEIM test responded by offering more complete information about their analyses, allowing us to further examine the perils of ignoring theory and correct statistical procedures. In this paper we show with extended analyses that the AEIM test is invalid.
Antonakis J. & Dietz J. (2011). Looking for Validity or Testing It? The Perils of Stepwise Regression, Extreme-Scores Analysis, Heteroscedasticity, and Measurement Error. Personality and Individual Differences, 50(3), 409-415. [doi] [pdf] [abstract]
When researchers introduce a new test they have to demonstrate that it is valid, using unbiased designs and suitable statistical procedures. In this article we use Monte Carlo analyses to highlight how incorrect statistical procedures (i.e., stepwise regression, extreme scores analyses) or ignoring regression assumptions (e.g., heteroscedasticity) contribute to wrong validity estimates. Beyond these demonstrations, and as an example, we re-examined the results reported by Warwick, Nettelbeck, and Ward (2010) concerning the validity of the Ability Emotional Intelligence Measure (AEIM). Warwick et al. used the wrong statistical procedures to conclude that the AEIM was incrementally valid beyond intelligence and personality traits in predicting various outcomes. In our re-analysis, we found that the reliability-corrected multiple correlation of their measures with personality and intelligence was up to .69. Using robust statistical procedures and appropriate controls, we also found that the AEIM did not predict incremental variance in GPA, stress, loneliness, or well-being, demonstrating the importance for testing validity instead of looking for it.
Antonakis J. & Dietz J. (2010). Emotional intelligence: On definitions, neuroscience, and marshmallows. Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice, 3(2), 165-170. [doi] [pdf] [abstract]
In his timely article, Cherniss offers his vision for the future of "Emotional Intelligence" (EI). However, his goal of clarifying the concept by distinguishing definitions from models and his support for "Emotional and Social Competence" (ESC) models will, in our opinion, not make the field advance. To be upfront, we agree that emotions are important for effective decision-making, leadership, performance and the like; however, at this time, EI and ESC have not yet demonstrated incremental validity over and above IQ and personality tests in meta-analyses (Harms & Credé, 2009; Van Rooy & Viswesvaran, 2004). If there is a future for EI, we see it in the ability model of Mayer, Salovey and associates (e.g, Mayer, Caruso, & Salovey, 2000), which detractors and supporters agree holds the most promise (Antonakis, Ashkanasy, & Dasborough, 2009; Zeidner, Roberts, & Matthews, 2008). With their use of quasi-objective scoring measures, the ability model grounds EI in existing frameworks of intelligence, thus differentiating itself from ESC models and their self-rated trait inventories. In fact, we do not see the value of ESC models: They overlap too much with current personality models to offer anything new for science and practice (Zeidner, et al., 2008). In this commentary we raise three concerns we have with Cherniss's suggestions for ESC models: (1) there are important conceptual problems in both the definition of ESC and the distinction of ESC from EI; (2) Cherniss's interpretation of neuroscience findings as supporting the constructs of EI and ESC is outdated, and (3) his interpretation of the famous marshmallow experiment as indicating the existence of ESCs is flawed. Building on the promise of ability models, we conclude by providing suggestions to improve research in EI.
Dietz Joerg (2010). Introduction to the special issue on employment discrimination against immigrants. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 25(2), 104-112. [doi] [abstract]
Purpose - This editorial aims to introduce the special issue on employment discrimination against immigrants. Design/methodology/approach - The first part is a commentary on key issues in the study of employment discrimination against immigrants. The second part presents the five articles in the special issue. Findings - The papers in this special issue focus on a variety of issues associated with employment discrimination against immigrants. For example, they consider: discrimination based on accents; differences among justice perceptions among immigrants and non-immigrants; the effects of negative stereotypes on workplace outcomes; the treatment of Hispanic immigrants; and the reasons for the lack of research on Hispanic immigrants. Research limitations/implications - The author comments on key issues that researchers of employment discrimination against immigrants have to take into account. These issues include: the appreciation of the diversity among immigrants; an understanding of the complexity of employment discrimination research; openness to cross-disciplinary approaches; and the consideration of employment discrimination within the context of the immigrant experience. The five articles that make up the special issues vary in their nature (empirical, critical), methodologies (quantitative, qualitative), locations (United States, Germany, and Canada), and implications. Practical implications - The issues discussed in the papers have important implications for understanding and overcoming employment discrimination against immigrants. Originality/value - The Journal of Managerial Psychology invited this special issue to initiate psychological research on employment discrimination against immigrants. The intent is to draw the attention of organizational scholars to the large, yet under-studied immigrant segment of the workforce.
Petersen L. E. & Dietz J. (2008). Employment discrimination : authority figures' demographic preferences and followers' affective organizational commitment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(6), 1287-1300. [doi]
Pugh S. D. & Dietz J. (2008). Employee engagement at the organizational level of analysis. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 1(1), 45-48. [doi] [abstract]
Macey and Schneider (2008) frame the construct of employee engagement at the individual level of analysis, butmuch of the interest in the practitioner and consulting communities (e.g., Buchanan, 2004; Jamrog, 2004) and several influential academic studies in this domain (e.g., Harter, Schmidt, & Hayes, 2002; Salanova, Agut, & Peiro, 2005) are framed and conducted at the organizational level. Macey and Schneider leave the level of analysis issue open but do suggest that adding additional levels of analysis to the research repertoire on employee engagementwould be a fruitful direction for future research. Because research and practice are already moving in this direction (perhaps ahead of solid theory development), we provide belowa brief rationale for why it may be valuable to conceptualize engagement at the organizational level of analysis and offer a few suggestions for how researchers may want to proceed.
Pugh S. D., Dietz J., Brief A. P. & Wiley J. W. (2008). Looking inside and out : the impact of employee and community demographic composition on organizational diversity climate. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(6), 1422-1428. [doi]
Bhardwaj A., Dietz J. & Beamish P. W. (2007). Host country cultural influences on foreign direct investment. Management International Review, 47(1), 29-50. [doi] [pdf] [abstract]
This paper provides a novel perspective towards understanding the influence of host country culture on the location choices of foreign firms. Host country cultural variables: uncertainty avoidance and trust, influence the location choices of foreign firms such that foreign firms prefer to invest in nations with low levels of uncertainty avoidance and high levels of trust. In addition to direct effects, it is hypothesize that uncertainty avoidance moderates the relationship between host country trust and levels of foreign direct investment (FDI) such that the relationship between trust and FDI becomes weaker, as uncertainty avoidance increases. The results in a sample of 43 nations are supportive of the hypothesized main effect of uncertainty avoidance and the moderating effects, and partially supportive of the main effect of trust on FDI, after controlling for economic, human capital, and governance infrastructure variables.
Umphress E. E., Smith-Crowe K., Brief A. P., Dietz J. & Watkins M. B. (2007). When birds of a feather flock together and when they do not: Status composition, social dominance orientation, and organizational attractiveness. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(2), 396-409. [doi] [abstract]
Although similarity-attraction notions suggest that similarity-for example, in terms of values, personality, and demography-attracts, the authors found that sometimes demographic similarity attracts and sometimes it repels. Consistent with social dominance theory (J. Sidanius & F. Pratto, 1999), they demonstrated in 3 studies that when prospective employees supported group-based social hierarchies (i.e., were high in social dominance orientation), those in high-status groups were attracted to demographic similarity within an organization, whereas those in low-status groups were repelled by it. An important theoretical implication of the findings is that social dominance theory and traditional similarity-attraction notions together help explain a more complex relationship between demographic similarity and attraction than was previously acknowledged in the organizational literature.
Watkins M. B., Kaplan S., Brief A. P., Shull A., Dietz J., Mansfield M.-T. & Cohen R. R. (2006). Does it pay to be a sexist? The relationship between modern sexism and career outcomes. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 69, 524-537. [doi] [abstract]
In this study, we examined the consequences of harboring "modern sexist" beliefs on the career outcomes of both men and women. We argued that individuals endorsing these beliefs disproportionately rely on men (versus women) for work-related advice and, in turn, obtain more promotions than do their less sexist counterparts. Results obtained from a sample of 192 communication workers supported our primary prediction, namely that modern sexism was positively related to advantageous outcomes in the workplace. The discussion focuses on the implications of modern (versus blatant) sexism in the workplace, especially in terms of the need for researchers and managers to recognize and address the organizational consequences of holding these subtle sexist beliefs.
Brief A. P., Umphress E. E., Dietz J., Burrows J. W., Butz R. M. & Scholten L. (2005). Community matters: Realistic group conflict theory and the impact of diversity. Academy of Management Journal, 48(5), 830-844. [doi] [abstract]
We conducted two studies that bring communities into the study of organizational demographics. Reasoning from a realistic group conflict theory base, we predicted (1) negative white reactions to racial and ethnic diversity in organizations and (2) moderation of this relationship by whites' diversity experiences in their communities. Data from the National Organizations Study and an experiment supported our hypotheses. The closer whites lived to blacks (Study 1) and the more interethnic conflict the former perceived in their communities (Study 2), the more negatively they responded to diverse workplaces. Our discussion focuses on understanding organizations as reflections of their environments.
Petersen L.-E. & Dietz J. (2005). Prejudice and enforcement of workforce homogeneity as explanations for employment discrimination. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 35(1), 144-159. [doi] [abstract]
We examined the effects of subtle and blatant prejudice and the enforcement of workforce homogeneity on employment discrimination in an experimental simulation. German participants who were advised to maintain a homogeneous (i.e., German) workforce, as hypothesized, selected fewer foreign applicants for a job interview than did participants who did not receive this advice. An interaction qualified this main effect, such that subtly prejudiced participants reacted to the advice to maintain a homogeneous workforce, but blatantly prejudiced and nonprejudiced individuals did not. The implications of these findings for research and practice are discussed.
Dietz J. & Pugh S. D. (2004). I say tomato, you say domate: Differential reactions to English-only workplace policies by persons from immigrant and non-immigrant families. Journal of Business Ethics, 52(4), 365-379. [doi] [abstract]
Immigrants now compose approximately 12% of the population of the United States and a sizable proportion of the workforce. Yet in contrast to research on other traditionally under-represented groups (e.g., women, African Americans), there are relatively few studies on issues related to being an immigrant in the U.S. workforce. This study examined English-only workplace policies, focusing on reactions to business justifications explanations that justify managerial decisions as business necessities - for these policies. We contrasted the reactions of individuals coming from immigrant families, where at least one parent was an immigrant to the U.S., with those of persons from non-immigrant families. Results of an experiment indicated that business justifications were successful in influencing the attitudes of non-immigrants toward the English-only policies, but did not influence the attitudes of individuals from immigrant families. Probing the reasons for this effect, a thought-listing protocol suggested that non-immigrants mentioned more of the business benefits of the English-only policy than did individuals from immigrant families. Further, business justifications for the English-only policy led individuals from immigrant families, but not those from non-immigrant families, to view the organization as being less ethical and less concerned with the welfare of its workers. The implications of messages from management being understood differently by different demographic groups are discussed.
Dietz J., Pugh S. D. & Wiley J. W. (2004). Service climate effects on customer attitudes: An examination of boundary conditions. Academy of Management Journal, 47(1), 81-92. [doi] [abstract]
Our aim in this study was to extend theory on service climate by examining two boundary conditions for the effects of service climate on customer attitudes. We hypothesized that (1) the more proximal and relevant the target of a service climate (a subunit versus an organization as a whole) to customers, and (2) the higher the frequency of contact between employees and customers, the stronger would be the relationship between service climate and customer attitudes. Both hypotheses received support in a sample of 160 bank branches.
Petersen L.-E., Dietz J. & Frey D. (2004). The effects of intragroup interaction and cohesion on intergroup bias. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 7(2), 107-118. [doi] [abstract]
The current study investigated the effects of intragroup interaction and cohesion on intergroup bias in a minimal group setting. As expected, interacting groups displayed a stronger intergroup bias than did individual group members acting in isolation. Moreover, there was a tendency for cohesive groups to show more intergroup bias than did groups formed on an ad hoc basis. Additional analyses showed that while groups and individuals did not differ in their treatment of the ingroup, groups discriminated against outgroup members more strongly than did individually acting group members. The findings are discussed with respect to their implications for understanding the differences in intergroup bias between groups, whose members interact, and individually acting group members.
Dietz J., Robinson S. L., Folger R., Baron R. A. & Schulz M. (2003). The impact of community violence and an organization's procedural justice climate on workplace aggression. Academy of Management Journal, 46(3), 317-326. [doi] [abstract]
This study contrasts community violence and an organization's procedural justice climate (or lack thereof) as explanations for employee-instigated workplace aggression in the geographically dispersed plants of a nationwide organization. The findings showed that violent crime rates in the community where a plant resided predicted workplace aggression in that plant, whereas the plant's procedural justice climate did not.
Pugh S. D., Dietz J., Wiley J. W. & Brooks S. M (2002). Driving service effectiveness through employee-customer linkages. Academy of Management Executive, 16(4), 73-84. [doi] [abstract]
Linkage research provides a powerful tool for service organizations because it identifies those elements of the work environment that are connected, or linked, with important organizational outcomes including customer satisfaction and financial performance. In doing so, linkage research integrates functional areas across the organization, providing managers with a common language and framework for a holistic, strategic measurement system focusing on the shared objective of serving the customer. Data from linkage studies are also used to establish an agenda for improving the practices that matter most for customer satisfaction, and the data serve as useful predictors of future firm performance. This article describes the basic linkage model that connects employees and customers in service organizations. We describe the contexts in which employee opinions are most strongly related to customer outcomes and identify the eight practices that have been found to be important drivers of customer satisfaction.
James E. H., Brief A. P., Dietz J. & Cohen R. R. (2001). Prejudice matters: Understanding the reactions of Whites to affirmative action programs targeted to benefit Blacks. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(6), 1120-1128. [doi] [abstract]
The authors examined, in 2 studies, the effects of equal employment opportunity/affirmative action (EEO/AA) policies on Whites' job-related attitudes, First. in an experiment, White prospective job recruits, as expected. rated a potential employer whose EEO/AA policies were framed as targeted to benefit Blacks as less attractive than a potential employer whose EEO/AA policies were trained more generally. Second, the results of a field study showed that prejudice against Black, moderated the relationship between Whites' perceptions that their organization's EEO/AA policies were targeted to benefit Blacks and their satisfaction with promotion opportunities. Specifically, among prejudiced Whites, this relationship was negative and considerable in size (r = -39, p < 01); whereas, among nonprejudiced Whites, it was negligible (r = -04. ns). The implication,. of our findings for the study of prejudice in organizations are discussed.
Brief A. P., Dietz J., Cohen R. R., Pugh S. D. & Vaslow J. B. (2000). Just doing business: Modern racism and obedience to authority as explanations for employment discrimination. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 81(1), 72-97. [doi] [abstract]
In two experiments, we investigated the effects of prejudice (in the form of modem, racism) and business justifications by authority figures (i.e., organizational superiors) to discriminate against minorities (Blacks in our research) in hiring situations. As expected, business justifications by legitimate authority figures led to participants' obedience in the form of discrimination relative to a no-justification condition and, in the second experiment, also relative to a condition in which the business justification came from an illegitimate authority figure. Moreover, in both experiments, as expected, modern racism did not have a main effect on discrimination, but interacted with business justifications such that modern racism predicted discrimination when a legitimate authority figure provided a business-related justification for such discrimination but not in the absence of such a justification. These results are discussed in terms of their theoretical implications for understanding prejudice and obedience to authority in organizations and in terms of their practical implications for addressing the problem of discrimination in the workplace.
Petersen L.-E. & Dietz J. (2000). Social discrimination in a personnel selection context: The effects of an authority's instruction to discriminate and followers' authoritarianism. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 30(1), 206-220. [doi] [abstract]
Social discrimination in a personnel-selection context was studied using an in-basket exercise. West German participants had to select personnel from an applicant pool that included West German applicants (in-group members) and East German applicants (out-group members). As predicted, we round a main effect for an authority's instruction to discriminate against out-group members. This main effect was. as predicted, qualified by an Instruction x Right-Wing Authoritarianism (RWA) interaction effect. Only high scorers on RWA discriminated against out-group members when instructed to do so.
Brody C. J. & Dietz J. (1997). On the dimensionality of two-question format Likert attitude scales. Social Science Research, 26, 197-204. [doi] [abstract]
Previous research indicates that Likert items do not result in unidimensional ordinal. rating scales nor do they consistently permit the separation of Content and Intensity dimensions. An alternative strategy is to present a separate Content (agree or disagree) item immediately followed by an Intensity (strongly or not strongly) item. Panel data from the 1992 and 1994 American National Election Studies are used to study this strategy. The results indicate that Content and Intensity are sometimes confounded with the two-part questions, and also that the joint responses to the Content and Intensity questions do not generally constitute a unidimensional scale
Dunlap W. P., Dietz J. & Cortina J. M. (1997). The spurious correlation of ratios that have common variables: A Monte Carlo examination of Pearson's formula. Journal of General Psychology, 124, 182-193. [doi] [abstract]
Pearson (1897) investigated correlations of ratios of bone measurements and found that although the correlations among the original measures were low, the correlations among ratios with common measures were about .5. To understand this result, he developed an approximate equation for the correlations of ratios. In the present study, Monte Carlo methods were used to show that Pearson's equation is fairly accurate and that correlations among ratios with common elements (e.g., X/C, Y/C) are indeed at least partly spurious, as Pearson concluded. This finding should serve as a two-fold warning to those who might correlate ratios that have common elements: (a) Interpretation of the observed relationship between such ratios may at best be tenuous, and (b) the relationships among the elements themselves may call into question the usefulness of addressing a hypothesis that can be tested only with a correlation between ratios that share elements.
Editorial Dietz J. & Guerrero L. (2008). It reminds me of Mexico: Hispanic immigrants in rural communities in the Midwest. The Business Journal of Hispanic Research, 2(2), 76-80.
Etudes de cas Dietz J., Grover A. & Guerrero L. (2008). Medical Equipment Inc. in Saudi Arabia. Ivey Publishing 9B07C042.
Dietz J. & Guerrero L. (2008). Teaching Note: Medical Equipment Inc. in Saudi Arabia. Ivey Publishing 9B07C042.
Dietz J. & Hamilton L. K. (2008). Subtle biases and covert prejudice in the workplace. Ivey Publishing 9B08C005.
Dietz J., Goffin M. & Marr A. (2007). Red Cross Children's Home: Building Capabilities in Guyana (A). Ivey Publishing 9B02C042.
Dietz J. & Joshi C. (2007). Teaching Note: Kenexa. Ivey Publishing 8B07C04.
Dietz J. & Joshi C. (2007). Kenexa. Ivey Publishing 9B07C04.
Dietz J. & Purdy L. (2007). Teaching Note: Barling Financial: Sexual Harassment. Ivey Publishing 8B01C14.
Dietz J., Purdy L. & Kim G. (2007). Barling Financial: Sexual Harassment (D). Ivey Publishing 9B01C017.
Dietz J., Purdy L. & Kim G. (2007). Barling Financial: Sexual Harassment (C). Ivey Publishing 9B01C016.
Dietz J., Purdy L. & Kim G. (2007). Barling Financial: Sexual Harassment (A). Ivey Publishing 9B01C014.
Dietz J., Purdy L. & Kim G. (2007). Barling Financial: Sexual Harassment (B). Ivey Publishing 9B01C015.
Dietz J. & Yang A. (2007). Salco (China). Ivey Publishing 9B03C025.
Dietz J. & Mark K. (2004). Teaching Note: Salesdriver: The Salesdriver Opportunity. Ivey Publishing 8B01C11.
Dietz J. (2003). Teaching Note: Quixotico. Ivey Publishing 8B00C31.
Dietz J. (2003). Teaching Note: Talbot University: The Supply Department. Ivey Publishing 8B00C24.
Dietz J. & Ewing K. (2003). Richard Ivey School of Business - The Leader Project (B). Ivey Publishing 9B03C047.
Dietz J. & Ewing K. (2003). Richard Ivey School of Business - The Leader Project (A). Ivey Publishing 9B03C046.
Dietz J. & Mark K. (2003). Teaching Note: Salesdriver - Employee Retention. Ivey Publishing 8B01C08.
Dietz J., Olivera F. & O'Neil E. (2003). Teaching Note: The Leo Burnett Company Ltd.: Virtual Team Management. Ivey Publishing 8B03M52.
Dietz J., Olivera F. & O'Neil E. (2003). The Leo Burnett Company Ltd.: Virtual Team Management. Ivey Publishing 9B03M052.
Dietz J. & Yang A. (2003). Teaching Note: Salco (China). Ivey Publishing 8B03C25.
Dietz J. & Archer K. J. (2002). Teaching Note: Kate Archer in Haiti. Ivey Publishing 8B01C35.
Dietz J., Goffin M. & Marr A. (2002). Teaching Note: Red Cross Children's Home: Building Capabilities in Guyana. Ivey Publishing 8B02C42.
Dietz J., Goffin M. & Marr A. (2002). Red Cross Children's Home: Building Capabilities in Guyana (C). Ivey Publishing 9B02C044.
Dietz J., Goffin M. & Marr A. (2002). Red Cross Children's Home: Building Capabilities in Guyana (B). Ivey Publishing 9B02C043.
Dietz J. & Archer K. J. (2001). Kate Archer in Haiti (B). Ivey Publishing 9B01C036.
Dietz J. & Archer K. J. (2001). Kate Archer in Haiti (A). Ivey Publishing 9B01C035.
Dietz J. & Malhotra A. (2001). Teaching Note: Bruce Cruickshank: Time and Self-Management. Ivey Management 8B01C31.
Dietz J. & Malhotra A. (2001). Bruce Cruickshank. Ivey Publishing 9B01C031.
Dietz J. & Mark K. (2001). Salesdriver (B): The Salesdriver Opportunity: Mark Sullivan's Perspective. Ivey Publishing 9B01C011.
Dietz J. & Mark K. (2001). Salesdriver (A): The Offer to Mark Sullivan: Salesdriver's Perspective. Ivey Publishing 9B01C010.
Dietz J. & Mark K. (2001). Salesdriver - Employee Retention. Ivey Publishing 9B01C008.
Dietz J. & Zhang X. (2001). NES China: Business Ethics (A). Ivey Publishing 9B01C029.
Dietz J. & Zhang X. (2001). Teaching Note: NES China: Business Ethics. Ivey Publishing 8B01C29.
Dietz J. & Zhang X. (2001). NES China: Business Ethics (B). Ivey Publishing 9B01C030.
Dietz J., Erskine J. A. & Leenders M. L. (2000). Talbot University: The Supply Department. Ivey Publishing 9B00C024.
Dietz J. & Mark K. (2000). Quixotico: The Fat Thursday Venture. Ivey Publishing 9B00C032.
Dietz J. & Mark K. (2000). Quixotico: The $15 Million Tease. Ivey Publishing 9B00C031.
Livres Lane H. W., Maznevski M. L., DiStefano J. & Dietz J. (2009). International Management Behavior: Leading with a Global Mindset (6th ed.). Oxford, England: Wiley.
Parties de livre
Chapitre Dietz J. & Kleinlogel E. P. (2015). Employment discrimination as unethical behavior. In King E. & Colella A. J. (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Workplace Discrimination. Oxford University Press. [doi]
Kleinlogel E. P. & Dietz J. (2015). A model of gender prejudice, power, and discrimination: How hierarchy-enhancing factors predominate over hierarchy-attenuating factors. In Faniko K., Lorenzi-Cioldi F., Sarrasin O. & Mayor E. (Eds.), Gender and social hierarchies: Perspectives from social psychology (pp. 135-147). London, UK: Routledge. [pdf] [url] [abstract]
Gender inequalities remain an issue in our society and particularly in the workplace. Several factors can explain this gender difference in top-level managerial positions such as career ambitions but also biases against women. In our chapter, we propose a model explaining why gender inequalities and particularly discrimination against women is still present in our societies despite social norms and existing legislation on gender equality. To this purpose, we review research on discrimination through two different approaches, (a) a prejudice approach through the justification-suppression model developed by Crandall and Eshleman (2003) and (b) a power approach through the social dominance theory (Pratto, Sidanius, Stallworth, & Malle, 1994; Sidanius & Pratto, 1999). In our work, we integrate these two approaches and propose a model of gender prejudice, power and discrimination. The integration of these two approaches contributes to a better understanding of how discrimination against women is formed and maintained over time.
Chui C., Kleinlogel E. P. & Dietz J. (2014). Diversity management. In Vodosek M. & DenHartog D. N. (Eds.), Wiley Encyclopedia of Management (3Vol. 6). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley & Sons.
Dietz J., Kleinlogel E. P. & Chui C. (2014). Stereotyping. In Vodosek M. & DenHartog D. N. (Eds.), Wiley Encyclopedia of Management (Vol. 6). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley & Sons.
Kleinlogel E. P. & Dietz J. (2013). Ethical Decision Making in Organizations: The Role of Empathy. In Pavlovich K. & Krahnke K. (Eds.), Organizing through empathy (pp. 115-129). Oxon, UK: Routledge. [pdf] [url]
Dietz J., Kleinlogel E. K. & Chui C. (2012). Research on Intergroup Conflict: Implications for Diversity Management. G. K. Stahl, I. Björkman, & S. Morris (Eds.), Handbook of research in international human resource management (2nd ed.). Cheltenham Glos, United Kingdom: Edward Elgar Publications. [url]
Jonsen K., Aycan Z., Berdrow I., Boyacigiller N., Brannen M. J., Davison S. C. et al. (2010). Scientific mindfulness: A foundation for future themes in international business. T. Devinney, T. Pedersen, and L. Tihanyi (Eds.), Advances in International Management: The Past, Present and Future of International Business & Management (Vol. 23, pp. 43-69). Bingley, UK: Emerald.
Jonsen K., Aycan Z., Berdrow I., Boyacigiller N., Brannen M. J., Davison S. C. et al. (2010). Scientific mindfulness: A foundation for future themes in international business. In Devinney T., Pedersen T. & Tihanyi L. (Eds.), Advances in International Management, The Past, Present and Future of International Business & Management (Vol. 23, pp. 43-69). Bingley United Kingdom. [doi] [pdf] [web of science] [abstract]
We conceptualize new ways to qualify what themes should dominate the future international business and management (IB/IM) research agenda by examining three questions: Whom should we ask? What should we ask, and which selection criteria should we apply? What are the contextual forces? Our main findings are the following: (1) wider perspectives from academia and practice would benefit both rigor and relevance; (2) four key forces are climate change, globalization, inequality, and sustainability; and (3) we propose scientific mindfulness as the way forward for generating themes in IB/IM research. Scientific mindfulness is a holistic, cross-disciplinary, and contextual approach, whereby researchers need to make sense of multiple perspectives with the betterment of society as the ultimate criterion.
O'Brien J. & Dietz J. (2010). Maintaining but also changing hierarchies: What Social Dominance Theory has to say. J. Pearce (Ed.), Status, organizations, and management (pp. 55-83). Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.
Petersen L.-E. & Dietz J. (2008). Diversity management. In Petersen L.-E. & Six B. (Eds.), Stereotype, Vorurteile und soziale Diskriminierung: Theorien, Befunde und Interventionen - Ein Lehrbuch (Stereotypes, prejudices, and social discrimination: Theories, results, and interventions) (pp. 311-319). Beltz-Verlag, Weinheim, Germany.
Dietz J. & Gill H. (2006). Communal sources of workplace violence. In Kelloway E. K., Barling J. & Hurrell J. (Eds.), Handbook of workplace violence (pp. 331-349). Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA.
Dietz J. & Petersen L.-E. (2006). Diversity management. In Stahl G. K. & Björkman I. (Eds.), Handbook of research in international human resource management (pp. 223-240). Edward Elgar Publications, Cheltenham Glos, United Kingdom.
Esses V. M., Dietz J. & Bhardwaj A. (2006). The role of prejudice in the discounting of immigrant skills. In Mahalingam R. (Ed.), The cultural psychology of immigrants (pp. 113-130). Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ.
Petersen L.-E. & Dietz J. (2006). Die Bedeutung von Stereotypen und Vorurteilen für das Diversity Management (the implications of stereotypes and prejudices for diversity management). In Becker M. & Seidel A. (Eds.), Diversity - Unternehmens- und Personalpolitik der Vielfalt (Diversity - Corporate and personnel policies) (pp. 106-122). Schäffer-Poeschel, Stuttgart.
Dietz J. & Petersen L.-E. (2005). Diversity Management als Management von Stereotypen und Vorurteilen am Arbeitsplatz (Diversity management as the management of stereotypes and prejudices). In Stahl G. K., Mayrhofer W. & Kühlmann T. M. (Eds.), Innovative Ansätze im internationalen Personalmanagement (innovative approaches to international personnel management) (pp. 249-271). Hampp Verlag, Stuttgart, Germany.
Actes de conférence (partie) Dietz J., Dennerlein T., Ding B. A. & Kleinlogel E.P. (2015, Sep). Gender Prototypes as Subtle Discrimination. The 14th Biannual Congress of the Swiss Psychological Society, Geneva, Switzerland.
Dennerlein T., Kleinlogel E.P., Dietz J. & Ding B. (2014, Mai). Gender ingroup projection and the evaluative connotation of leader prototypes. The 29th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP) in Honolulu, USA. [abstract]
The underrepresentation of women in top corporate ranks is a topic of ongoing discussion. Manager prototypes are proposed to be more male-typed than female-typed because historically men more often than women have held leadership roles. Why then is the maleness of manager prototypes even more pronounced among men than among women? Given that most personnel decision makers in organizations are men this phenomenon is problematic for women's advancement to top management positions. We address this question by investigating peoples' use of ingroup projection and their endorsement of evaluative attributes in constructing gender and leader prototypes.
Dennerlein T., Kleinlogel E. P., Dietz J. & Gabarrot F. (2013, Avr). Gender ingroup prototypicality and manager prototypes. The 28th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP) in Houston, Texas, USA.
Dietz J., Kleinlogel E. P., Dennerlein T. & Bing B. A. (2013, Sep). How women and men project their gender prototypes on leader prototypes. 13rd Biannual Congress of the Swiss Psychological Society, Basel, Switzerland. [abstract]
Both role incongruency theory (Eagly & Karau, 2002) and the lack of fit model by Heilman (1983) suggest that the underrepresentation of women in leadership positions can be explained by the male-typedness of leader prototypes. We examine how women and men project their gender prototypes onto leader prototypes. We found initially that men more so than women projected their gender prototypes on leader prototypes. For men there is more of an overlap between a prototypical men and a prototypical leader than there is an overlap between a prototypical woman and a prototypical leader. Women, however, do not engage in so called relative ingroup projection.¦In the current study, we further decompose this finding asking whether the gender difference in relative ingroup projection on leadership prototypes is driven by female prototypes, male prototypes, and/or leader prototypes. We further examine to what extent this gender difference is more manifested on positively valenced or negatively valenced attributes of prototypes. Our findings show that, while women and men have similar prototypes of leaders and men on both positively and negatively valenced attributes, men relative to women have less favorable prototypes of women but only on positively valenced attributes. An interesting implication is that efforts to address gender differences in the projection of gender prototypes onto leader prototypes should focus less on leader prototypes and more on the female prototypes. Theoretically, our findings allude to the importance of distinguishing between more subtle (evaluating the outgroup less positively on positive properties) and less subtle forms (evaluating the outgroup more negatively on negative properties) of outgroup derogation.
Kleinlogel E. P. & Dietz J. (2013, Août). Ethical decision making in organizations: The role of empathy. Annual Acadamy of Management Conference, Orlando, Florida, USA.
Binggeli S., Kleinlogel E. P., Krings F. & Dietz J. (2012, Août). Support for a demographically based selection method at University: The role of competition. Annual Academy of Management Conference in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. [abstract]
Building on the instrumental model of group conflict (IMGC), the present experiment investigates the support for discriminatory and meritocratic method of selections at university in a sample of local and immigrant students. Results showed that local students were supporting in a larger proportion selection method that favors them over immigrants in comparison to method that consists in selecting the best applicants without considering his/her origin. Supporting the assumption of the IMGC, this effect was stronger for locals who perceived immigrants as competing for resources. Immigrant students supported more strongly the meritocratic selection method than the one that discriminated them. However, contrasting with the assumption of the IMGC, this effect was only present in students who perceived immigrants as weakly competing for locals' resources. Results demonstrate that selection methods used at university can be perceived differently depending on students' origin. Further, they suggest that the mechanisms underlying the perception of discriminatory and meritocratic selection methods differ between local and immigrant students. Hence, the present experiment makes a theoretical contribution to the IMGC by delimiting its assumptions to the ingroup facing a competitive situation with a relevant outgroup. Practical implication for universities recruitment policies are discussed.
Kleinlogel E. P., Dietz J. & Binggeli S. (2012, Juil). Premières évidences de la validité de l'échelle de désengagement moral pour des actes discriminatoires (Initial evidence of the validity of a scale on moral disengagement in discriminatory behavior). 9e Colloque International de Psychologie Sociale en Langue Française (CIPSLF) in Porto, Portugal. [abstract]
De nombreuses études ont mis en évidence le fait que les individus étaient prêts à commettre des actes discriminatoires pour autant qu'ils puissent les justifier (Crandall & Eshleman, 2003). Nous proposons de contribuer à la compréhension de ce phénomène grâce au concept de désengagement moral pour des actes discriminatoires (DMD). Nous définissons le désengagement moral comme le fait de justifier ses propres actes immoraux de manière à les rendre acceptable. Ce concept trouve ses origines dans les travaux de Bandura et al. (1996) portant sur les comportements agressifs chez des enfants. Il se compose de huit mécanismes (p.ex. le déplacement de responsabilité).¦Notre recherche dépasse le cadre théorique développé par Bandura et al. pour inscrire le désengagement moral dans le champ de la discrimination intergroupe. De plus, en conceptualisant le désengagement moral comme une différence individuelle, nous proposons également de présenter les premières étapes du développement d'une échelle permettant de mesurer le DMD.¦L'échelle de DMD a été développée en trois étapes en suivant la procédure proposée par Hinkin (1998). Tout d'abord, une liste de 72 items a été générée suivant une méthode déductive. Puis, suite à une étude (n = 13) portant sur la cohérence des items vis-à-vis du concept et de ses mécanismes, cette liste a été réduite à 40 items (5 par mécanisme). Enfin, 118 étudiants universitaires ont participé à une étude dans le but de mener des analyses factorielles (exploratoire et confirmatoire), ainsi que de tester les validités convergente, divergente et prédictive de l'échelle. La première partie de cette étude se composait de différentes échelles (p.ex. mesure de personnalité, préjugés anti-immigrés, etc.). La seconde partie de l'étude était une expérience portant sur l'évaluation d'idées de méthodes de sélection (discriminatoire versus méritocratique) des étudiants suisses et étrangers à l'université, ayant pour but de réduire la surpopulation dans les salles de cours.¦Les résultats obtenus sont prometteurs pour le développement de l'échelle, autant du point de vue de sa structure (p.ex. α = .82) que de sa validité. Par exemple, plus le niveau de DMD des participants était élevé, plus ils étaient favorables à une méthode de sélection discriminatoire des étudiants à l'université. L'ensemble des résultats sera présenté durant la conférence. Nous discuterons également des potentielles contributions de cette échelle pour de futurs projets de recherche.¦Référence :¦Bandura, A., Barbaranelli, C., Caprara, G. V., & Pastorelli, C. (1996). Mechanisms of moral disengagement of the exercise of moral agency. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71 (2), 364-374.¦Crandall, C. S., & Eshleman, A. (2003). The Justification-suppression model of the expression and experience of prejudice. Psychological Bulletin, 129 (3), 414-446.¦Hinkin, T. R. (1998). A brief tutorial on the development of measures for use un survey questionnaires. Organizational Research Methods, 1 (1), 104.121.
Ossipowski V., Kleinlogel E. P., Dennerlein T. & Dietz J. (2012, Avr). The effects of safety climate and trust on job satisfaction. The 27th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP) in San Diego, CA, USA. [abstract]
Job satisfaction has been a frequently studied concept in organizational behavior. Past research has shown that trust in top management is an important factor influencing job satisfaction. To date, little attention has been paid to safety climate perceptions as a possible predictor of job satisfaction. In our study we investigated the direct and interactive effects of trust in top management and individual-level perceptions of safety climate in predicting job satisfaction. The findings of this study point to the importance of positive perceptions of safety climate on employees' job satisfaction when trust in top management is low.
Dietz J., Chui C. & Gabarrot F. (2010, Avr). The continuation of gender discrimination: An event-based perspective. 24th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology in Atlanta, GA.
Dietz J., Joshi C., Esses V., Hamilton L. & Gabarrot F. (2010, Août). Le paradoxe des compétences : Quand on discrimine les immigrés lorsqu'ils sont qualifiés mais pas lorsqu'ils ne le sont pas. [The skill paradox: Discrimination against qualified but not unqualified immigrants.]. 8th Colloque International de Psychologie Sociale en Langue Française (ADRIPS) in Nice, France.
Dietz J., Joshi C., Esses V. M. & Bennett-AbuAyyash C. (2010, Sep). Die Bewertung der akademischen Abschlüsse von Immigranten: Die Theorie des aversiven Rassismus [The evaluation of the academic degrees of immigrants: The theory of aversive racism.]. 47th Conference of the German Society for Psychology in Bremen, Germany.
Dietz J., Joshi C. & Wiley J. W. (2010, Mai). Customer- and branch-level determinants of customer satisfaction: A cross level investigation. 2010 La Londe Conference in Service Management.
Gabarrot F. & Dietz J. (2010, Août). Gender discrimination in the workplace: The in- group projection / intergroup distinctiveness model. Annual Academy of Management Conference in Montreal, Canada.
Gabarrot F., Dietz J. & Brief A. (2010, Août). Le racisme moderne est-il vraiment une forme subtile de racisme ? [Is Modern Racism really a subtle form of racism?]. 8th Colloque International de Psychologie Sociale en Langue Française (ADRIPS) in Nice, France.
Gabarrot F., Dietz J. & Brief A. (2010, Juin). Modern Racism: Blaming others for blatantly prejudicial behavior. International Conference on Discrimination and Tolerance Between Social Group in Jena, Germany.
Joshi C., Dietz J., Esses V. M. & Bennett-AbuAyyash C. (2010, Avr). Employment discrimination against minority immigrants: Decision context and applicant characteristics. 24th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology in Atlanta, GA.
Taylor O. A. & Dietz J. (2010, Avr). Observing workplace aggression: What intervention strategies should I use?. 24th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology in Atlanta, GA.
Dietz J., Guerrero L., Grover A. & Joshi C. (2008, Mai). Medical Equipment Inc. in Saudi Arabia. Case Track Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Administrative Sciences Association of Canada in Halifax, Nova Scotia.
Dietz J. & Joshi C. (2007, Juin). Kenexa. Case Track Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Administrative Sciences Association of Canada in Ottawa, Ontario.
Joshi C., Dietz J. & Esses V. M. (2006). Continuing employment discrimination amidst the need to embrace diversity: The role of organizational recruitment climates. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Administrative Sciences Association of Canada Banff, AB/Canada.
Dietz J., Olivera F. & O'Neil E. (2004, Juin). The Leo Burnett Company Ltd.: Virtual team management. Case Track Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Administrative Sciences Association of Canada in Quebec City, Quebec.
Esses V. M., Dietz J. & Bhardwaj A. (2004). Race, prejudice, and the evaluation of immigrant skills. International Journal of Psychology, 39(5-6) (pp. 9).
Dietz J. & Zhang X. (2002, Mai). NES China: Business ethics. Case Track Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Administrative Sciences Association of Canada in Winnipeg, Manitoba.
Dietz J. & Seijts G. H. (2001). Does research improve teaching in business schools? Its impact on student quality, student salaries, and rankings. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Administrative Sciences Association of Canada.
Folger R., Robinson S. L., Dietz J., Parks J. M. & Baron R. A. (1998). When colleagues become violent: Employee threats and assaults as a function of societal violence and organizational injustice [CD-ROM]. Academy of Management Proceedings, OB, A1-A7.
Abstract Kleinlogel E. P, Dietz J. & Antonakis J. (2014, Juil). Moral disengagement: Towards a context-general category-based measure of the concept [Abstract]. . 17e European Association of Social Psychology (EASP). Amsterdam, Netherlands. [abstract]
Bandura (1986) developed the concept of moral disengagement to explain how individuals can engage in detrimental behavior while experiencing low levels of negative feelings such as guilt-feelings. Most of the research conducted on moral disengagement investigated this concept as a global concept (e.g., Bandura, Barbaranelli, Caprara, & Pastorelli, 1996; Moore, Detert, Klebe Treviño, Baker, & Mayer, 2012) while Bandura (1986, 1990) initially developed eight distinct mechanisms of moral disengagement grouped into four categories representing the various means through which moral disengagement can operate. In our work, we propose to develop measures of this concept based on its categories, namely rightness of actions, rejection of personal responsibility, distortion of negative consequences, and negative perception of the victims, and which is not specific a particular area of research. Through our measures, we aim at better understanding the cognitive process leading individuals to behave unethically by investigating which category plays a role in explaining unethical behavior depending on the situations in which individuals are. To this purpose, we conducted five studies to develop the measures and to test its predictive validity. Particularly, we assessed the ability of the newly developed measures to predict two types of unethical behaviors, i.e. discriminatory behavior and cheating behavior. Confirmatory Factor analyses demonstrated a good fit of the model and findings generally supported our predictions.
Dennerlein T. & Dietz J. (2013). Why granting voice is not always positive [Abstract]. . The 28th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP) in Houston, Texas, USA.
Kleinlogel E. P., Dennerlein T., Dietz J. & Gabarrot F. (2013, Mai). Why Women Rarely Rise to the Top: A Social Identity Model of Leader Prototypes. [Abstract]. . 16th European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology, Münster, Germany. [abstract]
Purpose¦We propose a social identity model of leader prototypes to address why the maleness of leader prototypes is more pronounced among men than among women (e.g., Schein, 2001). Specifically, we argue that individuals project their ingroup prototype (e.g., a male prototype) onto a valued other category (e.g., leaders) (e.g., Wenzel, Mummendey, Weber, & Waldzus, 2003) in order to maintain a positive ingroup (e.g., gender) identity. We hypothesized that both women and men engage in ingroup projection of their gender prototype on their leader prototype, and we expected this effect to be stronger for men than women. We also investigated intelligence as a moderator of ingroup projection.¦Methodology¦Participants (276 students, University of Lausanne) assessed to what extent attributes on a list of gender traits were characteristic of a successful leader. We computed relative ingroup similarity scores (e.g., Waldzus & Mummendey, 2004) representing the difference between how characteristic ingroup traits are for a successful leader, and how characteristic outgroup traits are for a successful leader.¦Results¦Results showed that men engaged in ingroup projection while women engaged in outgroup projection, and that men engaged in ingroup projection to a greater extent. We also found a small, but positive effect of intelligence on ingroup projection among men.¦Limitations¦The use of a student sample might limit the external validity of our findings.¦Implications¦Our findings contribute to research on the under-representation of women in managerial roles, and introduce intelligence as a predictor of ingroup projection.¦Value¦Our study allows for a more fine-grained understanding of the cognitive representations of leaders of men and women.
Kleinlogel E. P. & Dietz J. (2012). Un déguisement pour la discrimination? [Abstract]. . Doctoriales de l'UNIL, Lausanne, Suisse. [abstract]
Malgré une société de plus en plus tolérante, la discrimination reste un problème d'actualité. Pour expliquer la formation des comportements discriminatoires, la recherche en psychologie sociale a traditionnellement étudié la discrimination comme un phénomène intergroupe, notamment à travers la théorie de l'identité sociale (Tajfel & Turner, 1979). Toutefois, cette approche ne permet pas de comprendre comment des individus peuvent de nos jours s'engager dans des comportements discriminatoires tout en sachant que ces actes sont répréhensibles socialement et pénalement. C'est à cette problématique que nous nous sommes attelés dans la présente recherche.¦De nombreuses études ont mis en évidence le fait que des individus étaient prêts à commettre des actes discriminatoires pour autant qu'ils puissent les justifier (Crandall & Eshleman, 2003). Nous proposons de contribuer à la compréhension de ce phénomène grâce au concept de désengagement moral définit comme le processus par lequel des individus justifient leurs comportements immoraux pour les rendre acceptable. Ce concept a initialement été développé de manière conceptuelle par Bandura (1990) pour comprendre les processus cognitifs amenant des individus à se comporter de manière immorale. Dans le cadre de notre recherche, nous proposons de développer le concept de désengagement moral pour des actes discriminatoires (DMD) ainsi que sa mesure. Plus particulièrement, nous proposons de conceptualiser le DMD comme une différence individuelle permettant aux individus de s'engager dans des comportements discriminatoires en toute impunité à travers un processus anticipatoire de justification. Ces justifications visent à prouver le bien-fondé des actes de discrimination envisagés, ainsi perçus comme bénins, acceptables, voire désirables. Deux des trois étapes envisagées pour le développement de la mesure ont déjà été réalisées. Les résultats obtenus sont prometteurs quant à la structure et la validité de la mesure.
Kleinlogel E. P. & Dietz J. (2011, Août). Décision de baisser les salaires ou non: Le rôle de l'empathie face à une recommandation d'un supérieur hiérarchique (The role of Empathy in wage cut decisions). [Abstract]. . 9e Colloque International de Psychologie Sociale Appliquée (CIPS-A), Strasbourg, France. [abstract]
En entreprise, les supérieurs hiérarchiques ont une influence non négligeable sur la prise de décision de leurs subordonnés. Ces derniers tendent à se conformer à l'avis de leur supérieur pour prendre leurs décisions. Toutefois, cette conformité des subordonnés à l'avis de leur supérieur peut devenir un problème lorsque l'avis reçu est questionnable d'un point de vue éthique. Les études antérieures menées à ce sujet ont démontré que le contenu n'a pas d'impact, c'est-à-dire que du moment qu'un avis est donné par un supérieur hiérarchique, les subordonnés tendent à se conformer à cet avis quelque soit son contenu.¦Dans la présente expérience, nous nous sommes intéressés à ce phénomène de conformité dans une prise de décision ayant des conséquences sur des personnes. En particulier, nous avons étudié le rôle de l'empathie, définit comme l'habilité de ressentir les émotions des autres ou de se mettre à leur place. Notre première hypothèse concerne l'effet principal de l'avis du supérieur : les participants tiennent compte de l'avis de leur supérieur dans leur prise de décision. Notre seconde hypothèse concerne le rôle modérateur de l'empathie: les participants haut en empathie sont moins sensibles à l'avis de leur supérieur que les participants bas en empathie étant donné qu'ils anticipent les conséquences de leur décision vis-à-vis des personnes concernées.¦Cent-douze étudiants ont participé à un exercice de mise en situation. Dans la peau d'un chef de Département d'une entreprise, ils devaient entre autres réfléchir au problème du niveau des salaires du personnel peu qualifié et en particulier au fait que cette catégorie de salariés était surpayée par rapport à ce qui se pratiquait sur le marché du travail. Cette expérience était composée de deux conditions, où l'avis du supérieur était manipulé. Dans la condition 1, l'avis du supérieur était de baisser les salaires, alors que dans la condition 2 l'avis était de garder les salaires constants.¦Les résultats ont confirmé nos hypothèses. Les participants recevant l'avis de leur supérieur de baisser les salaires ont effectivement pris la décision de baisser les salaires. Il a aussi été démontré que le niveau d'empathie modère cette relation. Les participants haut en empathie ont eu tendance à ne pas suivre l'avis donné contrairement aux participants bas en empathie. Cela démontre ainsi l'influence que peut avoir le contexte sur les individus et leur prise de décision mais aussi que les caractéristiques personnelles ont une influence non négligeable.
Cahiers de recherche Dietz J., Esses V. M., Joshi C. & Bennett-AbuAyyash C. (2009). The evaluation of immigrants' credentials: The roles of accreditation, immigrant race, and evaluator biases (18). Canadian Labour Market and Skills Researcher Network (CLSRN). [url]
Thèses Chui C. . S., Dietz J. (Dir.) (2015). Observer reactions to workplace mistreatment. Université de Lausanne, Faculté des hautes études commerciales. [abstract]
This study explored observer reactions to workplace interpersonal mistreatment using an inductive analysis approach. I conducted 32 interviews with a wide sample of working professionals from various backgrounds and industries to examine how observers react to the unfolding process of workplace interpersonal mistreatment incidents. Specifically, the goal of this study was to gain a deeper and closer understanding of observer reaction processes by examining first-hand accounts of employees who have witnessed co-workers being mistreated by others. I generated typologies of reported observer affective, cognitive, and behavioral reactions that emerged from their stories, and I identified what employees believe are important factors that inhibit or enable intervention. Results reveal that a majority of employees are not inclined to intervene during an ongoing mistreatment incident, and that observers who intervened during the incident reported different appraisal processes than observers who only intervened afterwards, or who did not intervene at all. From these personal accounts of observing workplace mistreatment, I interpreted that observers generally react to interpersonal mistreatment incidents in two phases, and that how targets reacted after an incident was an important trigger that propelled observers to become involved afterwards, even if they did not have the desire or the intention to do so. These findings have implications for current theories on observer intervention to mistreatment in the workplace.