110 publications classées par:
type de publication
: Revue avec comité de lecture
Articles Carrard V., Schmid Mast M. & Cousin G. (2016). Beyond "one size fits all": Physician nonverbal adaptability to patients' need for paternalism and its positive consultation outcomes. Health Communication, 31(11), 1327-1333. [doi] [pdf] [url] [web of science] [abstract]
In this study, we tested whether physicians' ability to adapt their nonverbal behavior to their patients' preferences for a paternalistic interaction style is related to positive consultation outcomes. We hypothesized that the more physicians adapt their nonverbal dominance behavior to match their patients' preferences for physician paternalism, the more positive the patients perceive the medical interaction. We assessed the actual nonverbal dominance behavior of 32 general practitioners when interacting with two of their patients and compared it with each of their patients' preferences for paternalism to obtain a measure of adaptability. Additionally, we measured patient outcomes with a questionnaire assessing patient satisfaction, trust in the physician, and evaluation of physician competence. Results show that the more nonverbal dominance the physician shows towards the patient who prefers a more paternalistic physician, as compared to towards the patient who prefers a less paternalistic physician (i.e., the more the physician shows nonverbal behavioral adaptability), the more positive the consultation outcomes are. This means that physicians' ability to adapt aspects of their nonverbal dominance behavior to their individual patients' preferences is related to better outcomes for patients. As this study shows, it is advantageous for patients when a physician behaves flexibly instead of showing the same behavior towards all patients. Physician training might want to focus more on teaching a diversity of different behavior repertoires instead of a given set of behaviors.
Cousin G. & Schmid Mast M. (2016). Trait-agreeableness influences individual reactions to a physician's affiliative behavior in a simulated bad news delivery health communication. Health Communication, 31(3), 320-327. [doi] [url] [abstract]
We tested whether the personality trait of agreeableness predicts different individual reactions to the level of nonverbal affiliativeness shown by a physician, in the context of a simulated bad news delivery. We predicted that individuals with high levels of agreeableness would react better to a physician adopting a highly affiliative communication style compared to individuals with low levels of agreeableness. We used an experimental design with analogue patients. Eighty participants (40 men/40 women) were randomly assigned to watch a video of a physician who communicated a bad diagnosis either in a highly affiliative or in a less affiliative way. Participants reported their reactions of anger and trust in the physician, and completed the agreeableness scale of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). In accordance with our predictions, the higher the agreeableness score of the participants, the less anger and the more trust they reported after viewing the high as compared to the low affiliative physician. These results suggest that people with high levels of agreeableness may be especially sensitive to highly affiliative physician nonverbal behavior when receiving bad news.
Hall J. A., Goh J. X., Schmid Mast M. & Hagedorn C. (2016). Individual differences in accurately judging personality from text. Journal of Personality, 84(4), 433-445. [doi] [web of science] [abstract]
This research examines correlates of accuracy in judging Big Five traits from first-person text excerpts. Participants in six studies were recruited from psychology courses or online. In each study, participants performed a task of judging personality from text and performed other ability tasks and/or filled out questionnaires. Participants who were more accurate in judging personality from text were more likely to be female; had personalities that were more agreeable, conscientious, and feminine, and less neurotic and dominant (all controlling for participant gender); scored higher on empathic concern; self-reported more interest in, and attentiveness to, people's personalities in their daily lives; and reported reading more for pleasure, especially fiction. Accuracy was not associated with SAT scores but had a significant relation to vocabulary knowledge. Accuracy did not correlate with¦tests of judging personality and emotion based on audiovisual cues. This research is the first to address individual differences in accurate judgment of personality from text, thus adding to the literature on correlates of the good judge of personality.
Murphy N., Schmid Mast M. & Hall J. A. (2016). Nonverbal self-accuracy: Individual differences in knowing one's own social interaction behavior. Personality and Individual Differences, 101, 30-34. [doi] [abstract]
The present study investigated individual differences in nonverbal self-accuracy (NVSA), which is the ability to accurately recall one's own nonverbal behavior following a social interaction. Participants were videotaped during a social interaction with a stranger and then asked to recall how often they displayed five common nonverbal behaviors. Correlations between the self-reported recall of nonverbal behavior and judges' behavioral coding indicated that individuals can accurately recall their own nonverbal behavior at better than chance levels. Higher NVSA also was associated with more public self-awareness, less positive expressivity, more accurate recognition of anger in facial expressions, and higher neuroticism. The results suggest that NVSA is a measurable individual difference construct with potential implications for self-awareness in social interactions.
Bombari D., Schmid Mast M., Cañadas E. & Bachmann M. (2015). Studying social interactions through immersive virtual environment technology: Virtues, pitfalls, and future challenges. Frontiers in Psychology, 6(869), 1-11. [doi] [url] [abstract]
Bourquin C., Stiefel F., Mast M.S., Bonvin R. & Berney A. (2015). Well, you have hepatic metastases: Use of technical language by medical students in simulated patient interviews. Patient Education and Counseling, 98(3), 323-330. [doi] [web of science] [abstract]
OBJECTIVE: This research explored medical students' use and perception of technical language in a practical training setting to enhance skills in breaking bad news in oncology.¦METHODS: Terms potentially confusing to laypeople were selected from 108 videotaped interviews conducted in an undergraduate Communication Skills Training. A subset of these terms was included in a questionnaire completed by students (N=111) with the aim of gaining insight into their perceptions of different speech registers and of patient understanding. Excerpts of interviews were analyzed qualitatively to investigate students' communication strategies with respect to these technical terms.¦RESULTS: Fewer than half of the terms were clarified. Students checked for simulated patients' understanding of the terms palliative and metastasis/to metastasize in 22-23% of the interviews. The term ambulatory was spontaneously explained in 75% of the interviews, hepatic and metastasis/to metastasize in 22-24%. Most provided explanations were in plain language; metastasis/to metastasize and ganglion/ganglionic were among terms most frequently explained in technical language.¦CONCLUSION: A significant number of terms potentially unfamiliar and confusing to patients remained unclarified in training interviews conducted by senior medical students, even when they perceived the terms as technical.¦PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: This exploration may offer important insights for improving future physicians' skills.
Carrard V. & Schmid Mast M. (2015). Physician behavioral adaptability: A model to outstrip a "one size fits all" approach. Patient Education and Counseling, 98(10), 1243-1247. [doi] [url] [abstract]
Objective: Based on a literature review, we propose a model of physician behavioral adaptability (PBA)¦with the goal of inspiring new research. PBA means that the physician adapts his or her behavior¦according to patients' different preferences. The PBA model shows how physicians infer patients'¦preferences and adapt their interaction behavior from one patient to the other. We claim that patients¦will benefit from better outcomes if their physicians show behavioral adaptability rather than a "one size¦fits all" approach.¦Method: This literature review is based on a literature search of the PsycINFO1 and MEDLINE1 databases.¦Results: The literature review and¦first results stemming from the authors' research support the validity¦and viability of parts of the PBA model. There is evidence suggesting that physicians are able to show¦behavioral¦flexibility when interacting with their different patients, that a match between patients'¦preferences and physician behavior is related to better consultation outcomes, and that physician¦behavioral adaptability is related to better consultation outcomes.¦Practice implications: Training of physicians' behavioral¦flexibility and their ability to infer patients'¦preferences can facilitate physician behavioral adaptability and positive patient outcomes.
Frauendorfer D., Schmid Mast M., Sanchez-Cortes D. & Gatica-Perez D. (2015). Emergent power hierarchies and group performance (Published online: 7 Oct. 2014). International Journal of Psychology, 50(5), 392-396. [doi] [url] [abstract]
In newly formed groups, informal hierarchies emerge automatically and readily. In this study, we argue that emergent group hierarchies enhance group performance (Hypothesis 1) and we assume that the more the power hierarchy within a group corresponds to the task-competence differences of the individual group members, the better the group performs (Hypothesis 2). Twelve three-person groups and 28 four-person groups were investigated while solving the Winter Survival Task. Results show that emerging power hierarchies positively impact group performance but the alignment between task-competence and power hierarchy did not affect group performance. Thus, emergent power hierarchies are beneficial for group performance and although they were on average created around individual group members' competence, this correspondence was not a prerequisite for better group performance.
Frauendorfer D., Schmid Mast M. & Sutter C. (2015). To include or not to include? Accuracy of personality judgments from resumes with and without photographs. Swiss Journal of Psychology, 74(4), 207-215. [doi] [web of science] [abstract]
We investigate whether adding the applicant's photograph on his/her resume boosts or hampers the accurate assessment of the applicant's personality (Big 5 and intelligence). One hundred and fourteen participants rated 8 applicants (4 men and 4 women) in terms of their personality (Big 5 and intelligence). The design was a 3 (condition: resume with photograph, resume only, and photograph only) x 2 (participant gender) between-subjects design. Results show that in all conditions, personality (with the exception of agreeableness) were assessed at better than guessing level. Adding a photograph to the resume did not change the accuracy of the personality assessment significantly.
Hall J. A., Roter D. L., Blanch-Hartigan D., Schmid Mast M. & Pitegoff C. A. (2015). How patient-centered do female physicians need to be? Analogue patients' satisfaction with male and female physicians' identical behaviors (Published online: 30 Aug 2014). Health Communication, 30(9), 894-900. [doi] [url] [abstract]
Previous research suggests that female physicians may not receive appropriate credit in¦patients' eyes for their patient-centered skills compared to their male counterparts. An experiment¦was conducted to determine whether a performance of higher (versus lower) verbal¦patient-centeredness would result in a greater difference in analogue patient satisfaction for¦male than female physicians. Two male and two female actors portrayed physicians speaking¦to a patient using high or low patient-centered scripts while not varying their nonverbal cues.¦One hundred ninety-two students served as analogue patients by assuming the patient role¦while watching one of the videos and rating their satisfaction and other evaluative responses¦to the physician. Greater verbal patient-centeredness had a stronger positive effect on satisfaction¦and evaluations for male than for female physicians. This pattern is consistent with¦the hypothesis that the different associations between patient-centeredness and patients' satisfaction¦for male versus female physicians occur because of the overlap between stereotypical¦female behavior and behaviors that comprise patient-centered medical care. If this is the case,¦high verbal patient-centered behavior by female physicians is not recognized as a marker of¦clinical competence, as it is for male physicians, but is rather seen as expected female behavior.
Hall J. A., Schmid Mast M. & Latu I. M. (2015). The vertical dimension of social relations and accurate interpersonal perception: A meta-analysis (Publishd online: 24 Oct. 2014). Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 39(2), 131-163. [doi] [url] [abstract]
There is little consensus regarding how verticality (social power, dominance, and status) is related to accurate interpersonal perception. The relation could be either positive or negative, and there could be many causal processes at play. The present article discusses the theoretical possibilities and presents a meta-analysis of this question. In studies using a standard test of interpersonal accuracy, higher socioeconomic status (SES) predicted higher accuracy defined as accurate inference about the meanings of cues; also, higher experimentally manipulated vertical position predicted higher accuracy defined as accurate recall of others' words. In addition, although personality dominance did not predict accurate inference overall, the type of personality dominance did, such that empathic/responsible dominance had a positive relation and egoistic/aggressive dominance had a negative relation to accuracy. In studies involving live interaction, higher experimentally manipulated vertical position produced lower accuracy defined as accurate¦inference about cues; however, methodological problems place this result in doubt.
Latu I.M., Schmid Mast M. & Stewart T. (2015). Gender biases in (inter)action: The role of interviewers' and applicants' implicit and explicit stereotypes in predicting women's job interview outcomes. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 39(4), 539-552. [doi] [url] [web of science] [abstract]
Although explicit stereotypes of women in the workplace have become increasingly positive, negative stereotypes persist at an implicit level, with women being more likely associated with incompetent-and men with competent-managerial traits. Drawing upon work on self-fulfilling prophecies and interracial interactions, we investigated whether and how implicit and explicit gender stereotypes held by both male interviewers and female applicants predicted women's interview outcomes. Thirty male interviewers conducted mock job interviews with 30 female applicants. Before the interview, we measured interviewers' and applicants' implicit and explicit gender stereotypes. The interviewers' and applicants' implicit stereotypes independently predicted external evaluations of the performance of female applicants. Whereas female applicants' higher implicit stereotypes directly predicted lower performance, male interviewers' implicit stereotypes indirectly impaired female applicants' performance through lower evaluations by the interviewer and lower self-evaluations by the applicant. Moreover, having an interviewer who was at the same time high in implicit and low in explicit stereotypes predicted the lowest performance of female applicants. Our findings highlight the importance of taking into account both implicit and explicit gender stereotypes in mixed-gender interactions and point to ways to reduce the negative effects of gender stereotypes in job interviews. Additional online materials for this article are available to PWQ subscribers on PWQ's website at http://pwq.sagepub.com/supplemental.
Murphy N. A., Hall J. A., Schmid Mast M., Ruben M. A., Frauendorfer D., Blanch-Hartigan D. et al. (2015). Reliability and validity of nonverbal thin slices in social interactions. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 41(2), 199-213. [doi] [url] [abstract]
Four studies investigated the reliability and validity of thin slices of nonverbal behavior from social interactions including (1) how well individual slices of a given behavior predict other slices in the same interaction; (2) how well a slice of a given behavior represents the entirety of that behavior within an interaction; (3) how long a slice is necessary to sufficiently represent the entirety of a behavior within an interaction; (4) which slices best capture the entirety of behavior, across different behaviors; and (5) which behaviors (of six measured behaviors) are best captured by slices. Notable findings included strong reliability and validity for thin slices of gaze and nods, and that a 1.5 min slice from the start of an interaction may adequately represent some behaviors. Results provide useful information to researchers making decisions about slice measurement of behavior.
Ruben M. A., Hall J. A. & Schmid Mast M. (2015). Smiling in a job interview: When less is more. The Journal of Social Psychology, 155(2), 107-126. [doi] [url] [abstract]
Two studies examined the effect of applicants' smiling on hireability. In a pre-test study, participants were asked to rate the expected behavior for four types of applicants. Newspaper reporter applicants were expected to be more serious than applicants for other jobs. In Study 1, participants were randomly assigned to be an applicant or interviewer for a newspaper reporting job. Smiling was negatively related to hiring, and smiling mediated the relation between applicants' motivation to make a good impression and hiring. Hiring was maximized when applicants smiled less in the middle of the interview relative to the start and end. In Study 2, participants watched Study 1 clips and were randomly assigned to believe the applicants were applying to one of four jobs. Participants rated more suitability when applicants smiled less, especially for jobs associated with a serious demeanor. This research shows that job type is an important moderator of the impact of smiling on hiring.
Schmid Mast M., Gatica-Perez D., Frauendorfer D., Nguyen L. & Choudhury T. (2015). Social sensing for psychology: Automated interpersonal behavior assessment. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 24(2), 154-160. [doi] [url] [abstract]
In this article, we show how the use of state-of-the-art methods in computer science based on machine perception and learning allows the unobtrusive capture and automated analysis of interpersonal behavior in real time (social sensing). Given the high ecological validity of the behavioral sensing, the ease of behavioral-cue extraction for large groups over long observation periods in the field, the possibility of investigating completely new research questions, and the ability to provide people with immediate feedback on behavior, social sensing will fundamentally impact psychology.
Schmid P. C., Schmid Mast M. & Mast F. (2015). Prioritizing: The strategy of the powerful ?. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 68(10), 2097-2105. [doi] [url] [abstract]
Previous research has shown that power increases focus on the main goal when distractor information is¦present. As a result, high-power people have been described as goal-focused. In real life, one typically¦wants to pursue multiple goals at the same time. There is a lack of research on how power affects how¦people deal with situations in which multiple important goals are present. To address this question, 158¦participants were primed with high or low power or assigned to a control condition, and were asked to¦perform a dual-goal task with three difficulty levels. We hypothesized and found that high-power¦primed people prioritize when confronted with a multiple-goal situation. More specifically, when¦task demands were relatively low, power had no effect; participants generally pursued multiple goals¦in parallel. However, when task demands were high, the participants in the high-power condition¦focused on a single goal whereas participants in the low-power condition continued using a dualtask¦strategy. This study extends existing power theories and research in the domain of goal pursuit.
Frauendorfer D., Schmid Mast M., Nguyen L. & Gatica-Perez D. (2014). Nonverbal social sensing in action: Unobtrusive recording and extracting of nonverbal behavior in social interactions illustrated with a research example. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior. Special Issue: Contemporary Perspectives in Nonverbal Research, 38(2), 231-245. [doi] [url] [abstract]
Nonverbal behavior coding is typically conducted by "hand". To remedy this time and resource intensive undertaking, we illustrate how nonverbal social sensing, defined as the automated recording and extracting of nonverbal behavior via ubiquitous social sensing platforms, can be achieved. More precisely, we show how and what kind of nonverbal cues can be extracted and to what extent automated extracted nonverbal cues can be validly obtained with an illustrative research example. In a job interview, the applicant's vocal and visual nonverbal immediacy behavior was automatically sensed and extracted. Results show that the applicant's nonverbal behavior can be validly extracted. Moreover, both visual and vocal applicant nonverbal behavior predict recruiter hiring decision, which is in line with previous findings on manually coded applicant nonverbal behavior. Finally, applicant average turn duration, tempo variation, and gazing best predict recruiter hiring decision. Results and implications of such a nonverbal social sensing for future research are discussed.
Klöckner Cronauer C. & Schmid Mast M. (2014). Hostile sexist male patients and female doctors - A challenging encounter. The Patient: Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, 7(1), 37-45. [doi] [web of science] [abstract]
BACKGROUND:¦Patient characteristics and attitudes can affect how patients react to the physician's communication style, and this reaction can then influence consultation outcomes.¦OBJECTIVE:¦The goal of the present study was to investigate whether the attitude of a sexist male patient affects how he perceives a female physician's nonverbal communication and whether this then results in expecting less positive consultation outcomes.¦STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING:¦Participants were analog patients who viewed four videotaped male and four videotaped female physicians in a consultation with one of their patients. Physician videos were preselected to represent a range of high and low patient-centered physician nonverbal behavior. Participants filled in questionnaires to assess how patient-centered they perceived the female and male physicians' nonverbal communication to be, and participants indicated how positive they expected the consultation outcomes to be. Moreover, we assessed the participants' sexist attitudes with a questionnaire measuring hostile and benevolent sexism.¦PARTICIPANTS:¦Students (N = 60) from a French-speaking university in Switzerland were recruited on campus.¦MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE:¦The main outcome measures were the extent to which analog patients expect the consultation outcomes to be positive (high satisfaction, increased trust in the physician, intention to adhere to treatment recommendations, and perceived physician competence) and the extent to which analog patients perceive physicians as patient-centered (judged from the physicians' nonverbal cues).¦RESULTS:¦Male analog patients' hostile sexism was negatively related to perceiving the physicians as patient-centered, and male analog patients' hostile sexism was also negatively related to expected positive consultation outcomes. For male patients viewing female physicians, mediation analysis revealed that perceived physician patient-centeredness mediated the negative relationship between hostile sexism and expected positive consultation outcomes.¦CONCLUSION:¦Male hostile sexist patients perceive a female physician's nonverbal communication as less patient-centered and this negatively affects their expectation of positive outcomes from the consultation.
Nguyen L. S., Frauendorfer D., Schmid Mast M. & Gatica-Perez D (2014). Hire me: Computational inference of hirability in employment interviews based on nonverbal behavior. IEEE Transactions on Multimedia, 16(4), 1018 - 1031. [doi] [url] [abstract]
Understanding the basis on which recruiters form hirability impressions for a job applicant is a key issue in organizational psychology and can be addressed as a social computing problem. We approach the problem from a face-to-face, nonverbal perspective where behavioral feature extraction and inference are automated. This paper presents a computational framework for the automatic prediction of hirability. To this end, we collected an audio-visual dataset of real job interviews where candidates were applying for a marketing job. We automatically extracted audio and visual behavioral cues related to both the applicant and the interviewer. We then evaluated several regression methods for the prediction of hirability scores and showed the feasibility of conducting such a task, with ridge regression explaining 36.2% of the variance. Feature groups were analyzed, and two main groups of behavioral cues were predictive of hirability: applicant audio features and interviewer visual cues, showing the predictive validity of cues related not only to the applicant, but also to the interviewer. As a last step, we analyzed the predictive validity of psychometric questionnaires often used in the personnel selection process, and found that these questionnaires were unable to predict hirability, suggesting that hirability impressions were formed based on the interaction during the interview rather than on questionnaire data.
Schmid Mast M. & Darioly A. (2014). Emotion recognition accuracy in hierarchical relationships. Swiss Journal of Psychology, 73(2), 69-75. [doi] [url] [web of science] [abstract]
Whether superiors or subordinates are more accurate in assessing the emotions of others (aka emotion recognition accuracy, ERA) is a question that has gained much interest but yielded decidedly mixed empirical results. The present study investigates whether superiors and subordinates who are in an actual hierarchical relationship differ in their ERA. We investigated 142 superiors who each had recruited one of his or her direct subordinates (total N = 284). Superiors and subordinates each took a paper-pencil version of a standardized ERA test. Results showed that superiors were more accurate in assessing the emotions of other persons than subordinates were.
Bombari D., Schmid Mast M., Brosch T. & Sander D. (2013). How interpersonal power affects empathic accuracy: differential roles of mentalizing versus mirroring?. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7(375), 1-6. [doi] [url] [web of science] [abstract]
Empathic accuracy (EA)âeuro"the correct assessment of the affective states and thoughts of a social partnerâeuro"affects social behavior and the outcome of interpersonal interactions. Growing evidence has shown that interpersonal power of a perceiver affects EA when assessing a target. This picture, however, is not obvious; there is evidence supporting both the idea that power can improve EA or impair it. Moreover, the mechanisms through which high power individuals are more (or less) accurate at reading others' minds are unknown. The present article provides a new perspective on the power-EA link by investigating how two core abilities involved in EA, mentalizing and mirroring, can explain when and how power is related to EA. The inclusion of findings from neuroimaging studies on mentalizing and mirroring adds a cognitive neuroscience perspective to the power-EA research that has traditionally been conducted in a social psychological framework. The extent to which a given EA-test requires mentalizing or mirroring and the way power affects both of them could explain the contrasting findings. In addition, the analysis of the neural substrates of mentalizing and mirroring may provide new insight into the relationship between power and EA.
Bombari D., Schmid P.C., Schmid Mast M., Birri S., Mast F.W. & Lobmaier J.S. (2013). Emotion recognition: The role of featural and configural face information. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 66(12), 2426-2442. [doi] [url] [web of science] [abstract]
Several studies investigated the role of featural and configural information when processing facial identity. A lot less is known about their contribution to emotion recognition. In this study, we addressed this issue by inducing either a featural or a configural processing strategy (Experiment 1) and by investigating the attentional strategies in response to emotional expressions (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, participants identified emotional expressions in faces that were presented in three different versions (intact, blurred, and scrambled) and in two orientations (upright and inverted). Blurred faces contain mainly configural information, and scrambled faces contain mainly featural information. Inversion is known to selectively hinder configural processing. Analyses of the discriminability measure (Aâeuro²) and response times (RTs) revealed that configural processing plays a more prominent role in expression recognition than featural processing, but their relative contribution varies depending on the emotion. In Experiment 2, we qualified these differences between emotions by investigating the relative importance of specific features by means of eye movements. Participants had to match intact expressions with the emotional cues that preceded the stimulus. The analysis of eye movements confirmed that the recognition of different emotions rely on different types of information. While the mouth is important for the detection of happiness and fear, the eyes are more relevant for anger, fear, and sadness.
Cousin G. & Schmid Mast M. (2013). Agreeable patient meets affiliative physician: How physician behavior affects patient outcomes depends on patient personality. Patient Education and Counseling, 90(3), 399-404. [doi] [web of science] [abstract]
Objective¦This study tests whether the personality trait of agreeableness in simulated patients moderates their reactions to the physician's behavior. We predicted that the more agreeable the participants, the more positive the interaction outcomes when they see a high affiliative physician as compared to a low affiliative physician.¦Methods¦Participants (60 students) watched videotaped excerpts (2 min each) of 4 physicians exhibiting a high affiliative behavior and of 4 physicians exhibiting a low affiliative behavior. Participants reported after each physician their satisfaction, trust, determination to adhere to the treatment recommendations, and their perception of the physician's competence. They also completed the agreeableness scale of the NEO-PI-R personality questionnaire.¦Results¦The higher the agreeableness scores of the participants, the higher was their trust with the high affiliative physicians as compared to the low affiliative physicians, their perception of the physician's competence, and their determination to adhere to the treatment.¦Conclusion¦Results confirmed that the more agreeable the simulated patients were, the better they reacted to a physician behavior that was high rather than low in affiliativeness.¦Practice implications¦These results suggest that the more agreeable patients are, the more important it is that physicians adopt a high affiliative behavior.
Cousin G., Schmid Mast M. & Jaunin N. (2013). When physician expressed uncertainty leads to patient dissatisfaction: A gender study. Medical Education, 47(9), 923-931. [doi] [url] [web of science] [abstract]
Context¦Communication guidelines often advise physicians to disclose to their patients medical uncertainty regarding the diagnosis, origin of the problem, and treatment. However, the effect of the expression of such uncertainty on patient outcomes (e.g. satisfaction) has produced conflicting results in the literature that indicate either no effect or a negative effect. The differences in the results of past studies may be explained by the fact that potential gender effects on the link between physician-expressed uncertainty and patient outcomes have not been investigated systematically.¦Objectives¦On the basis of previous research documenting indications that patients may judge female physicians by more severe criteria than they do male physicians, and that men are more prejudiced than women towards women, we predicted that physician-expressed uncertainty would have more of a negative impact on patient satisfaction when the physician in question was female rather than male, and especially when the patient was a man.¦Methods¦We conducted two studies with complementary designs. Study 1 was a randomised controlled trial conducted in a simulated setting (120 analogue patients Analogue patients are healthy participants asked to put themselves in the shoes of real medical patients by imagining being the patients of physicians shown on videos); Study 2 was a field study conducted in real medical interviews (36 physicians, 69 patients). In Study 1, participants were presented with vignettes that varied in terms of the physician's gender and physician-expressed uncertainty (high versus low). In Study 2, physicians were filmed during real medical consultations and the level of uncertainty they expressed was coded by an independent rater according to the videos. In both studies, patient satisfaction was assessed using a questionnaire.¦Results¦The results confirmed that expressed uncertainty was negatively related to patient satisfaction only when the physician was a woman (Studies 1 and 2) and when the patient was a man (Study 2).¦Conclusions¦We believe that patients have the right to be fully informed of any medical uncertainties. If our results are confirmed in further research, the question of import will refer not to whether female physicians should communicate uncertainty, but to how they should communicate it. For instance, if it proves true that uncertainty negatively impacts on (male) patients' satisfaction, female physicians might want to counterbalance this impact by emphasizing other communication skills.
Cousin G., Schmid Mast M. & Jaunin N. (2013). Finding the right interactional temperature: Do colder patients need more warmth in physician communication style?. Social Science & Medicine, 98, 18-23. [doi] [url] [web of science] [abstract]
Being aware of which communication style should be adopted when facing more difficult patients is important for physicians; it can help prevent patient reactions of dissatisfaction, mistrust, or non-adherence that can be detrimental to the process of care. Past research suggests that less agreeable patients are especially critical towards, and reactive to, their physician's communication style, compared to more agreeable patients. On the basis of the literature, we hypothesized that less agreeable patients would react more negatively than agreeable patients to lower levels of affiliativeness (i.e., warmth, friendliness) in the physicians, in terms of satisfaction with the physician, trust in the physician, and determination to adhere to the treatment. Thirty-six general practitioners (20 men/16 women) working in their own practice in Switzerland were filmed while interacting with 69 patients (36 men/33 women) of different ages (M = 50.7; SD = 18.19; range: 18-84) and presenting different medical problems (e.g., back pain, asthma, hypertension, diabetes). After the medical interview, patients filled in questionnaires measuring their satisfaction with the physician, their trust in the physician, their determination to adhere to the treatment, and their trait of agreeableness. Physician affiliativeness was coded on the basis of the video recordings. Physician gender and dominance, patient gender and age, as well as the gravity of the patient's medical condition were introduced as control variables in the analysis. Results confirmed our hypothesis for satisfaction and trust, but not for adherence; less agreeable patients reacted more negatively (in terms of satisfaction and trust) than agreeable patients to lower levels of affiliativeness in their physicians. This study suggests that physicians should be especially attentive to stay warm and friendly with people low in agreeableness because those patients' satisfaction and trust might be more easily lowered by a cold or distant physician communication style.
Frauendorfer D. & Schmid Mast M. (2013). Hiring gender-occupation incongruent applicants. Journal of Personnel Psychology, 12(4), 182-188. [doi] [web of science] [abstract]
Gender-occupational stereotypes that recruiters harbor toward male and female applicants still exist. However, there might be individual differences in recruiters that account for more or less stereotyping when facing male and female applicants who do not correspond to attributes of the job opening (e.g., male-typical vs. female-typical job). In this study, we tested whether recruiters high on interpersonal sensitivity are more likely to hire gender-occupational incongruent applicants. Seventy-three participants in the role of a recruiter conducted a job interview with either a gender-occupational incongruent (woman applying for a male-typical job or man applying for a female-typical job) or a gender-occupational congruent applicant. Results showed that the likelihood of hiring a gender-occupation incongruent applicant increased the more the recruiter was interpersonally sensitive, whereas interpersonal sensitivity did not affect hiring decision regarding gender-occupation congruent applicants.
Latu I.M., Schmid Mast M., Lammers J. & Bombari D. (2013). Successful female leaders empower women's behavior in leadership tasks. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 49(3), 444-448. [doi] [web of science] [abstract]
Women are less likely than men to be associated with leadership, and the awareness of this stereotype may undermine women's performance in leadership tasks. One way to circumvent this stereotype threat is to expose women to highly successful female role models. Although such exposures are known to decrease women's leadership aspirations and self-evaluations, it is currently unknown what the effects of role models are on actual behavior during a challenging leadership task. We investigated whether highly successful female role models empower women's behavior in a leadership task. In a virtual reality environment, 149 male and female students gave a public speech, while being subtly exposed to either a picture of Hillary Clinton, Angela Merkel, Bill Clinton, or no picture. We recorded the length of speeches as an objective measure of empowered behavior in a stressful leadership task. Perceived speech quality was also coded by independent raters. Women spoke less than men when a Bill Clinton picture or no picture was presented. This gender difference disappeared when a picture of Hillary Clinton or Angela Merkel was presented, with women showing a significant increase when exposed to a female role model compared to a male role model or no role models. Longer speaking times also translated into higher perceived speech quality for female participants. Empowered behavior also mediated the effects of female role models on women's self-evaluated performance. In sum, subtle exposures to highly successful female leaders inspired women's behavior and self-evaluations in stressful leadership tasks.
Sanchez-Cortes D., Aran O., Jayagopi D. B., Schmid Mast M. & Gatica-Perez D. (2013). Emergent leaders through looking and speaking: From audio-visual data to multimodal recognition. Journal on Multimodal User Interfaces, 7(1/2), 39-53. [doi] [url] [web of science] [abstract]
In this paper we present a multimodal analysis of emergent leadership in small groups using audio-visual features and discuss our experience in designing and collecting a data corpus for this purpose. The ELEA Audio-Visual Synchronized corpus (ELEA AVS) was collected using a light portable setup and contains recordings of small group meetings. The participants in each group performed the winter survival task and filled in questionnaires related to personality and several social concepts such as leadership and dominance. In addition, the corpus includes annotations on participants' performance in the survival task, and also annotations of social concepts from external viewers. Based on this corpus, we present the feasibility of predicting the emergent leader in small groups using automatically extracted audio and visual features, based on speaking turns and visual attention, and we focus specifically on multimodal features that make use of the looking at participants while speaking and looking at while not speaking measures. Our findings indicate that emergent leadership is related, but not equivalent, to dominance, and while multimodal features bring a moderate degree of effectiveness in inferring the leader, much simpler features extracted from the audio channel are found to give better performance.
Schmid P. C. & Schmid Mast M. (2013). Power increases performance in a social evaluation situation as a result of decreased stress responses. European Journal of Social Psychology, 43(3), 201-211. [doi] [url] [web of science] [abstract]
We tested whether power reduces responses related to social stress and thus increases performance evaluation in social evaluation situations. We hypothesized and found that thinking about having power reduced fear of negative evaluation and physiological arousal during a self-presentation task (Studies 1 and 2). In Study 2, we also showed that simply thinking about having power made individuals perform better in a social evaluation situation. Our results confirmed our hypotheses that the mechanism explaining this power-performance link was that high power participants felt less fear of negative evaluation. The reduced fear of negative evaluation generated fewer signs of behavioral nervousness, which caused their performance to be evaluated more positively (serial mediation). Simply thinking of having power can therefore have important positive consequences for a person in an evaluation situation in terms of how he or she feels and how he or she is evaluated.
Cousin G., Schmid Mast M., Roter D.L. & Hall J.A. (2012). Concordance between physician communication style and patient attitudes predicts patient satisfaction. Patient Education and Counseling, 87(2), 193-197. [doi] [url] [web of science] [abstract]
Objective¦This study tested whether the impact of the physician's communication style on patient satisfaction differs depending on patients' attitudes toward caring and sharing. We predicted that the impact of physician caring on patient satisfaction depends on patient attitudes toward caring, and that the impact of physician sharing on patient satisfaction depends on patient attitudes toward sharing.¦Methods¦Participants (N = 167) were asked to imagine that they were consulting for recurrent headaches. They interacted on a computer with a virtual physician that communicated either in a low or high caring way and either in a low or high sharing way (2 × 2 design). Then, participants answered questions about their attitudes toward caring and sharing and about their satisfaction with the physician.¦Results¦Hypotheses were confirmed. Furthermore, a high caring physician communication style led to higher satisfaction than a low caring one, regardless of participants' attitudes toward caring, while satisfaction with physicians' level of sharing was dependent on the participants' attitude toward sharing.¦Conclusion and practice implications¦Physicians may adopt a high caring style with confidence that all patients will benefit. Adoption of a sharing style should be more carefully adjusted to patient attitudes.
Sanchez-Cortes D., Aran O., Schmid Mast M. & Gatica-Perez D. (2012). A nonverbal behavior approach to identify emergent leaders in small groups. IEEE Transactions on Multimedia, 14(3), 816-832. [doi] [url] [web of science] [abstract]
Identifying emergent leaders in organizations is a key issue in organizational behavioral research, and a new problem in social computing. This paper presents an analysis on how an emergent leader is perceived in newly formed, small groups, and then tackles the task of automatically inferring emergent leaders, using a variety of communicative nonverbal cues extracted from audio and video channels. The inference task uses rule-based and collective classification approaches with the combination of acoustic and visual features extracted from a new small group corpus specifically collected to analyze the emergent leadership phenomenon. Our results show that the emergent leader is perceived by his/her peers as an active and dominant person; that visual information augments acoustic information; and that adding relational information to the nonverbal cues improves the inference of each participant's leadership rankings in the group.
Schmid Mast M., Jonas K., Klöckner Cronauer C. & Darioly A. (2012). On the importance of the superior's interpersonal sensitivity for good leadership. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 42(5), 1043-1068. [doi] [url] [web of science] [abstract]
This research is aimed at showing that interpersonal sensitivity (being attuned to and correctly inferring another person's thoughts and feelings) is an important aspect of what people expect from a good leader and that interpersonally sensitive leaders have more satisfied subordinates. In the first study, participants indicated how much they expected a good superior to be interpersonally sensitive (among other characteristics). People expect leaders to be interpersonally sensitive more so than subordinates. In the second study, participants interacted in same-gender dyads as leaders and subordinates. We measured subordinate satisfaction and leader interpersonal sensitivity. More interpersonally sensitive leaders had more satisfied subordinates. Interpersonal sensitivity is important for good leadership: It is expected from leaders, and it contributes to increased subordinate satisfaction.
Darioly A. & Schmid Mast M. (2011). Facing an incompetent leader: The effects of a nonexpert leader on subordinates' perception and behaviour. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 20(2), 239-265. [doi] [url] [web of science] [abstract]
We investigated the effects of a leader's task-incompetence on how subordinates perceive and interact with their leader. In Study 1, 80 participants in a subordinate role interacted via e-mail and in Study 2, 80 participants interacted face-to-face with either a competent or an incompetent leader on a problem-solving task. Participants' dominance behaviour, how much they resisted the leader's influence, their perception of the leader, and their task involvement were assessed. As predicted, subordinates perceived the leader's incompetence as a lack of power and compensated for it by taking on a more powerful position themselves (i.e., more dominance behaviour, more resistance to the leader's influencing attempts). In sum, having a task-incompetent leader affects not only the subordinates' perception of the leader but also how the subordinate interacts with the leader.
Schmid Mast M., Bangerter A., Bulliard C. & Aerni G (2011). How accurate are recruiters' first impressions of applicants in employment interviews?. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 19(2), 198-208. [doi] [url] [web of science] [abstract]
The ability of recruiters and laypersons (students) to detect applicant personality traits and deception was studied. Participants viewed mock videotapes of target applicants answering interview questions. They subsequently judged the applicants' personality on the Big Five dimensions. Then, they viewed another videotape with other applicants presenting themselves either truthfully or not, and subsequently guessed which version was truthful. Personality judgments were compared with targets' self-assessments and peer assessments to create an accuracy score. Both recruiters and students accurately detected applicants' global personality profile. Recruiters were better at this than students. However, students were better at judging the specific traits of openness, extraversion, and conscientiousness, whereas recruiters only accurately detected openness. Recruiters detected lies above chance whereas students did not.
Schmid Mast M., Frauendorfer D. & Popovic L. (2011). Self-promoting and modest job applicants in different cultures. Journal of Personnel Psychology, 10(2), 70-77. [doi] [url] [web of science] [abstract]
The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of the recruiter's cultural background on the evaluation of a job applicant's presentation style (self-promoting or modest) in an interview situation. We expected that recruiters from cultures that value self-promotion (e.g., Canada) will be more inclined to hire self-promoting as compared to modest applicants and that recruiters from cultures that value modesty (e.g., Switzerland) will be less inclined to hire self-promoting applicants than recruiters from cultures that value self-promotion. We therefore investigated 44 native French speaking recruiters from Switzerland and 40 native French speaking recruiters from Canada who judged either a self-promoting or a modest videotaped applicant in terms of hireability. Results confirmed that Canadian recruiters were more inclined to hire self-promoting compared to modest applicants and that Canadian recruiters were more inclined than Swiss recruiters to hire self-promoting applicants. Also, we showed that self-promotion was related to a higher intention to hire because self-promoting applicants are perceived as being competent.
Schmid Mast M., Hall J. A., Klöckner Cronauer C. & Cousin G. (2011). Perceived dominance in physicians: Are female physicians under scrutiny?. Patient Education and Counseling, 83(2), 174-179. [doi] [url] [web of science] [abstract]
Objective¦This research aims at identifying how specific physician verbal and nonverbal behaviors are related to perceived dominance of female and male physicians.¦Method¦Analogue patients (163 students) watched videotaped excerpts of eight physicians and indicated how dominant they perceived each physician to be.¦Results¦Female physicians who spoke more, talked more while doing something else, spoke with louder voices, modulated their voices more, were oriented more toward the patients, sat at a smaller interpersonal distance, were more expansive, and had a more open arm position were perceived as more dominant. These relations were significantly more pronounced in female than in male physicians. With respect to verbal behavior, not agreeing with the patient, structuring the discussion, setting the agenda, and asking questions were related to being perceived as significantly more dominant in female than in male physicians.¦Conclusion¦Patients interpret verbal and nonverbal female and male physicians' cues differently. If a behavior contradicts gender stereotypes regarding women, this behavior is perceived as particularly dominant in female physicians.¦Practice implications¦To provide optimal care, physicians need to be aware of the expectations their patients harbor toward them-especially expected behavior related to the gender of the physician.
Schmid P.C., Schmid Mast M., Bombari D. & Mast F.W. (2011). Gender Effects in Information Processing on a Nonverbal Decoding Task. Sex Roles, 65(1-2), 102-107. [doi] [url] [web of science] [abstract]
Women typically outperform men on the ability to assess other people's nonverbal behavior. This difference might occur because women are taught to be more sensitive to emotional and nonverbal cues at a very early age compared to men. As a consequence, women might use a more favorable cognitive processing style than men during nonverbal decoding. The present study investigated whether this gender difference is due to the use of different cognitive information processing styles (global or local). Participants (N = 137) were Swiss undergraduate students that were randomly assigned to either a global (focusing on the whole) or a local (focusing on details) priming of information processing style, or to a control group. They then performed a nonverbal decoding task. Results showed that compared to the control group, local priming had beneficial and global priming detrimental effects for nonverbal decoding accuracy. This was due to an improved performance in men after the local priming; women's performance was not significantly affected by the local priming. Global priming increased nonverbal decoding accuracy in men and decreased performance in women. We conclude that women already use the more beneficial local processing style by default and that men's performance can be boosted when providing them a processing strategy.
Schmid P.C., Schmid Mast M., Bombari D., Mast F.W. & Lobmaier J.S. (2011). How Mood States Affect Information Processing During Facial Emotion Recognition: An Eye Tracking Study. Swiss Journal of Psychology, 70(4), 223-231. [doi] [url] [web of science] [abstract]
Existing research shows that a sad mood hinders emotion recognition. More generally, it has been shown that mood affects information processing. A happy mood facilitates global processing and a sad mood boosts local processing. Global processing has been described as the Gestalt-like integration of details; local processing is understood as the detailed processing of the parts. The present study investigated how mood affects the use of information processing styles in an emotion recognition task. Thirty-three participants were primed with happy or sad moods in a within-subjects design. They performed an emotion recognition task during which eye movements were registered. Eye movements served to provide information about participants' global or local information processing style. Our results suggest that when participants were in a happy mood, they processed information more globally compared to when they were in a sad mood. However, global processing was only positively and local processing only negatively related to emotion recognition when participants were in a sad mood. When they were in a happy mood, processing style was not related to emotion recognition performance. Our findings clarify the mechanism that underlies accurate emotion recognition, which is important when one is aiming to improve this ability (i.e., via training)
Schulz P.J., Bangerter A. & Schmid Mast M. (2011). Adaptivity in health communication. Studies in Communication Sciences, 11(1), 7-13. [url]
Cousin G. & Schmid Mast M. (2010). Les médecins hommes et femmes interagissent de manière différente avec leurs patients: Pourquoi s'en préoccuper ? [Interactions between patients and physicians: why should we care about gender issues?]. Revue Médicale Suisse, 257(6), 1444-1447. [url] [abstract]
Cet article présente les résultats principaux de la recherche actuelle sur l'influence du genre dans les interactions médecins-patients. Les médecins hommes et femmes transmettent la même quantité d'informations médicales, mais les médecins hommes discutent moins facilement des aspects psychosociaux de la maladie. Ils posent moins de questions à leurs patients, que celles-ci soient d'ordre médical ou psychosocial, et reçoivent moins d'informations de leur part. Les médecins femmes adoptent un style de communication plus participatif et un comportement non verbal plus chaleureux. De leur côté, les patients se comportent avec les médecins hommes de manière moins dominante qu'avec les médecins femmes. Enfin, les patients hommes reçoivent moins de signes d'empathie et moins d'informations de la part de leur médecin, quel que soit son genre.
Klöckner Cronauer C. & Schmid Mast M. (2010). Geschlechtsspezifische Aspekte des Gesprächs zwischen Arzt und Patient [Gender-Specific Aspects of the Physician-Patient Interaction]. Rehabilitation, 49(5), 308-314. [doi] [url] [abstract]
This article aims at shedding light on the role of physician and patient gender in the medical consultation. Because of the scarce amount of studies concentrating on gender aspects of the physician-patient interaction in rehabilitation or chronic disease, mostly results from general medicine are reported. Female physicians have a more emotional and less dominant communication style. Female patients bring up more psychosocial topics and disclose more information about themselves in general. Both female and male physicians give more information and apply a more partnership-oriented communication style when seeing a female patient. Female and male patients communicate more partnership-oriented with female physicians and share more psychosocial and medical information with them. Same-gender dyads seem beneficial most of the time for physician-patient communication. Mixed-gender dyads are more difficult, especially when a younger female physician sees a male patient. There is no single good communication style recommendable for all physicians. Rather, the research results presented should be applied to communication trainings for physicians. This could provide physicians with a flexible choice of communication styles to apply according to different situations.
Morina N., Maier T. & Schmid Mast M. (2010). Lost in translation? Psychotherapie unter Einsatz von Dolmetschern (Psychotherapy using interpreters). Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie, 60(3-4), 104-110. [doi] [url] [abstract]
Language is the most essential tool in psychotherapies. Treatment is not possible if there is no common language between therapist and patient. To enable communication between therapists and patients not speaking a common language, the use of professional trained interpreters is inevitable. With the presence of a third person--the interpreter--a triad is established, which bears difficulties, but also chances. In the present paper, these problems and chances are discussed. Recommendations to optimize the work of interpreters in the psychotherapeutic setting are presented. Interpreters should familiarize themselves with the principles of psychotherapeutic methods and clear role concepts for therapists and interpreters should be defined.
Sauer J., Darioly A., Schmid Mast M., Schmid P. C. & Bischof N. (2010). A multi-level approach of evaluating crew resource management training: A laboratory-based study examining communication skills as a function of team congruence. Ergonomics, 58(11), 1311-1324. [doi] [url] [web of science] [abstract]
The article proposes a multi-level approach for evaluating communication skills training (CST) as an important element of crew resource management (CRM) training. Within this methodological framework, the present work examined the effectiveness of CST in matching or mismatching team compositions with regard to hierarchical status and competence. There is little experimental research that evaluated the effectiveness of CRM training at multiple levels (i.e. reaction, learning, behaviour) and in teams composed of members of different status and competence. An experiment with a two (CST: with vs. without) by two (competence/hierarchical status: congruent vs. incongruent) design was carried out. A total of 64 participants were trained for 2.5 h on a simulated process control environment, with the experimental group being given 45 min of training on receptiveness and influencing skills. Prior to the 1-h experimental session, participants were assigned to two-person teams. The results showed overall support for the use of such a multi-level approach of training evaluation. Stronger positive effects of CST were found for subjective measures than for objective performance measures. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This work provides some guidance for the use of a multi-level evaluation of CRM training. It also emphasises the need to collect objective performance data for training evaluation in addition to subjective measures with a view to gain a more accurate picture of the benefits of such training approaches.
Schmid Mast M. (2010). Interpersonal behaviour and social perception in a hierarchy: The interpersonal power and behaviour model. European Review of Social Psychology, 21(1), 1-33. [doi] [url] [web of science] [abstract]
Power is a core dimension of social interactions and relationships. The present article addresses how power hierarchies form, how power is expressed and perceived via verbal and nonverbal behaviour during social interactions, and whether power of others can accurately be assessed. Taking into account the inherently relational and interactional nature of the power concept, an interpersonal power and behaviour model is presented. The model explicitly differentiates between different facets of power (status, position power, personality dominance, competence, experienced power, and perceived power) and it is suggested that these facets can moderate the power-behaviour link. Research evidence is provided to illustrate the importance of a refined view of the concept of power and of integrating the different power facets in theorizing about power.
Schmid Mast M., Hall J. A. & Schmid P. C. (2010). Wanting to be boss and wanting to be subordinate: Effects on performance motivation. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 40(2), 458-472. [doi] [url] [web of science] [abstract]
Does dyad members' motivation to take on a high or low power position influence the dyad's performance motivation when assigned to hierarchical roles? Participants in 69 dyads (33 all-women, 36 all-men) indicated whether they preferred the high-power role (owner of an art gallery) or the low power role (assistant to the owner). Power roles were then randomly assigned. The dyad's interaction during task solving was videotaped. Uninvolved coders rated performance motivation as the degree of quality of the superior's and the subordinate's task contributions and effort put into the task. Performance motivation was better if the boss preferred the high power to the low power role, irrespective of the subordinate's role preference. Leadership effectiveness is thus affected by the superior's power motivation.
Schmid P. C. & Schmid Mast M. (2010). Mood effects on emotion recognition. Motivation and Emotion, 34(3), 288-292. [doi] [url] [web of science] [abstract]
Mood affects memory and social judgments. However, findings are inconsistent with regard to how mood affects emotion recognition: For sad moods, general performance decrements in emotion recognition have been reported, as well as an emotion specific bias, such as better recognition of sad facial expressions compared to happy expressions (negative bias). Far less research has been conducted on the influence of happy moods on emotion recognition. We primed 93 participants with happy, sad, or neutral moods and had them perform an emotion recognition task. Results showed a negative bias for participants in sad moods and a positive bias for participants in happy moods. Sad and happy moods hampered the recognition of mood-incongruent expressions; the recognition of mood-congruent expressions was not affected by moods.
Hall J. A., Blanch D. C., Horgan T. G., Murphy N. A., Rosip J. C. & Schmid Mast M. (2009). Motivation and interpersonal sensitivity: Does it matter how hard you try ?. Motivation and Emotion, 33(3), 291-302. [doi] [url] [web of science] [abstract]
Across 11 experiments, motivation to be accurate on a test of interpersonal sensitivity was manipulated using five methods for increasing motivation (monetary incentive, ego motive, forewarning that accuracy would be tested, exhortation to try hard, and framing the interpersonal sensitivity test description to suggest that performance was gender relevant). Participants were then given an interpersonal sensitivity test consisting of interpreting the meanings of cues or recalling a target person's appearance, nonverbal cues, or spoken utterances. Neither the individual studies, nor a meta-analysis of the 11 studies, found that the motivation manipulations improved participants' accuracy on interpersonal sensitivity tests that involved the processing of nonverbal cues. However, motivation had a significant positive effect when sensitivity was defined as recall of verbal cues. There was no evidence that any of the manipulations had a differential impact on men and women.
Hall J. A. & Schmid Mast M (2009). Five ways of being "theoretical": Applications to provider-patient communication research. Patient Education and Counseling, 74(3), 282-286. [doi] [url] [web of science] [abstract]
Analyzes the term "theoretical" as it applies to the area of provider-patient communication research, in order to understand better at a conceptual level what the term may mean for authors and critics.¦Based on literature on provider-patient communication.¦Offers, and discusses, five definitions of the term "theoretical" as it applies to empirical research and its exposition: (1) grounding, (2) referencing, (3) design and analysis, (4) interpretation, and (5) impact. Each of these definitions embodies a different standard for evaluating the theoretical aspects of research.¦Although it is often said that research on provider-patient communication is not "theoretical" enough, the term is ambiguous and often applied vaguely. A multidimensional analysis reveals that there are several distinct ways in which empirical research can be strong or weak theoretically.¦Researchers, educators, editors, and reviewers could use the "Five Ways" framework to appraise the theory-relevant strengths and weaknesses of empirical research and its exposition.
Schmid Mast M., Jonas K. & Hall J. A. (2009). Give a person power and he or she will show interpersonal sensitivity: The phenomenon and its why and when. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97(5), 835-850. [doi] [url] [web of science] [abstract]
The goal of the present research was to investigate whether high or low power leads to more interpersonal sensitivity and what potentially mediates and moderates this effect. In Study 1, 76 participants in either a high- or low-power position interacted; in Study 2, 134 participants were implicitly primed with either high- or low-power or neutral words; and in Study 3, 96 participants were asked to remember a situation in which they felt high or low power (plus a control condition). In Study 4, 157 participants were told to identify with either an egoistic, empathic, or neutral leadership style. In all studies, interpersonal sensitivity, defined as correctly assessing other people, was then measured using different instruments in each study. Consistently, high power resulted in more interpersonal sensitivity than low power. Feeling respected and proud was partially responsible for this effect. Empathic power as a personality trait was related to more interpersonal sensitivity, and high-power individuals who adopted an empathic instead of an egoistic leadership style were more interpersonally sensitive.
Hall J. A., Andrzejewski S. A., Murphy N. A., Schmid Mast M. & Feinstein B. A. (2008). Accuracy of judging others' traits and states: Comparing mean levels across tests. Journal of Research in Personality, 42(6), 1476-1489. [doi] [url] [web of science] [abstract]
Tests of accuracy in interpersonal perception take many forms. Often, such tests use designs and scoring methods that produce overall accuracy levels that cannot be directly compared across tests. Therefore, progress in understanding accuracy levels has been hampered. The present article employed several techniques for achieving score equivalency. Mean accuracy was converted to a common metric, pi [Rosenthal, R., & Rubin, D. B. (1989). Effect size estimation for one-sample multiple-choice-type data: Design, analysis, and meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 106, 332-337] in a database of 109 published results representing tests that varied in terms of scoring method (proportion accuracy versus correlation), content (e.g., personality versus affect), number of response options, item preselection, cue channel (e.g., face versus voice), stimulus duration, and dynamism. Overall, accuracy was midway between guessing level and a perfect score, with accuracy being higher for tests based on preselected than unselected stimuli. When item preselection was held constant, accuracy was equivalent for judging affect and judging personality. However, comparisons must be made with caution due to methodological variations between studies and gaps in the literature.
Hall J. A. & Schmid Mast M. (2008). Are women always more interpersonally sensitive than men? Impact of goals and content domain. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34(1), 144-155. [doi] [url] [web of science] [abstract]
Two studies examined motivation and content domain as possible influences on sex differences in interpersonal sensitivity. Although much research has found women to excel on tasks measuring interpersonal sensitivity, most of the tasks have measured accuracy in female-relevant domains such as emotion. The present studies measured interpersonal sensitivity, defined as accurate recall of another person, for both female-relevant and male-relevant content domains and also included motivational manipulations intended to influence men and women differently. Study 1 measured accuracy of recalling information in a written vignette about a person, and Study 2 measured accuracy of recalling details about an interaction partner. Both studies supported hypotheses about domain specificity and gender-relevant motivation. However, even for male-stereotypic content and for tasks framed to favor men's motivation to perform well, men's accuracy never exceeded women's.
Schmid Mast M., Hall J. A., Klöckner Cronauer C. & Choi E. (2008). Physician gender affects how physician nonverbal behavior is related to patient satisfaction. Medical Care, 46(12), 1212-1218. [doi] [url] [web of science] [abstract]
Physician and patient gender both influence medical communication. Nonverbal behavior is generally under-researched in the medical encounter but plays an important role for patient outcomes such as satisfaction.¦This article aims at identifying how specific physician nonverbal behaviors predict analogue patient satisfaction depending on physician and patient gender.¦Eleven physicians in a real medical encounter were videotaped and analogue patients indicated their satisfaction with each physician while viewing the videotapes.¦One hundred sixty-three university students participated (analogue patients).¦From the videotapes, 17 physician nonverbal behaviors (related to face, body, voice/speech), 2 physician appearance cues, 2 characteristics of the examination room, and 1 patient behavior were coded. For each analogue patient, the correlation between each of these coded characteristics and the patient's satisfaction was calculated, across all physicians and across male and female physicians separately.¦There was no main effect for patient gender but most coded characteristics showed different relations to patient satisfaction according to physician gender. Analogue patients were most satisfied with female physicians who behaved in line with the female gender role (eg, more gazing, more forward lean, softer voice) while still stressing their professionalism (laboratory coat, medical-looking examination room). For male physicians, satisfaction was high for a broader range of behaviors, partly related to their gender role (eg, louder voice, more distance to patient).¦To be satisfied, patients expect female and male physicians to show different patterns of nonverbal behavior. Awareness of these gender-specific expectations should be taken into account in medical training.
Schmid Mast M., Hall J. A. & Roter D. L. (2008). Caring and dominance affect participants' perceptions and behaviors during a virtual medical visit. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 23(5), 523-527. [doi] [url] [web of science] [abstract]
Physician communication style affects patients' perceptions and behaviors. Two aspects of physician communication style, caring and dominance, are often related in that a high caring physician is usually not dominant and vice versa.¦This research was aimed at testing the sole or joint impact of physician caring and physician dominance on participant perceptions and behavior during the medical visit.¦In an experimental design, analog patients (APs) (167 university students) interacted with a computer-generated virtual physician on a computer screen. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 experimental conditions (physician communication style: high dominance and low caring, high dominance and high caring, low dominance and low caring, or low dominance and high caring). The APs' verbal and nonverbal behavior during the visit as well as their perception of the virtual physician were assessed.¦Analog patients were able to distinguish dominance and caring dimensions of the virtual physician's communication. Moreover, APs provided less medical information, spoke less, and agreed more when interacting with a high-dominant compared to a low-dominant physician. They also talked more about emotions and were quicker in taking their turn to speak when interacting with a high-caring compared to a low-caring physician.¦Dominant and caring physicians elicit different emotional and behavioral responses from APs. Physician dominance reduces patient engagement in the medical dialog and produces submissiveness, whereas physician caring increases patient emotionality.
Schmid Mast M., Sieverding M., Esslen M., Graber K. & Jäncke L. (2008). Masculinity causes speeding in young men. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 40(2), 840-842. [doi] [url] [web of science] [abstract]
The goal of this study was to examine if masculinity is causally responsible for speeding in young men. Participants (83 males) were randomly assigned to a masculine, feminine, or neutral priming condition. Priming consisted in active listening to either masculine, feminine, or neutral words coming from the car radio while driving in a high-end driving simulator. Results showed that when the concept of masculinity was activated by priming, participants' driving speed increased significantly from the beginning to the end of the driving simulation as compared to the neutral and the feminine condition. Results are discussed with respect to real life health implications.
Hall J. A., Murphy N. A. & Schmid Mast M. (2007). Nonverbal self-accuracy in interpersonal interaction. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33(12), 1675-1685. [doi] [url] [web of science] [abstract]
Four studies measure participants' accuracy in remembering, without forewarning, their own nonverbal behavior after an interpersonal interaction. Self-accuracy for smiling, nodding, gazing, hand gesturing, and self-touching is scored by comparing the participants' recollections with coding based on videotape. Self-accuracy is above chance and of modest magnitude on average. Self-accuracy is greatest for smiling; intermediate for nodding, gazing, and gesturing; and lowest for self-touching. It is higher when participants focus attention away from the self (learning as much as possible about the partner, rearranging the furniture in the room, evaluating the partner, smiling and gazing at the partner) than when participants are more self-focused (getting acquainted, trying to make a good impression on the partner, being evaluated by the partner, engaging in more self-touching). The contributions of cognitive demand and affective state are discussed.
Hall J. A. & Schmid Mast M. (2007). Sources of accuracy in the empathic accuracy paradigm. Emotion, 7(2), 438-446. [doi] [url] [web of science] [abstract]
In the empathic accuracy paradigm, perceivers make inferences about the naturalistically occurring thoughts and feelings of stimulus persons, and these inferences are scored for accuracy against the stimulus persons' self-reported thoughts and feelings. The present study investigated sources of accuracy in this paradigm by presenting the stimulus tape in several cue modalities (full video, audio, transcript, or silent video) and with differing instructions (infer thoughts and feelings, infer thoughts, or infer feelings). Verbal information contributed the most to accuracy, followed by vocal nonverbal cues. Visual nonverbal cues contributed the least, though still at levels above zero. When asked to infer feelings, perceivers appeared to shift attention toward visual nonverbal cues and away from verbal cues, and the reverse occurred when they were asked to infer thoughts. The study contributes to understanding of factors contributing to accuracy in the empathic accuracy paradigm.
Schmid Mast M. (2007). On the importance of nonverbal communication in the physician-patient interaction. Patient Education and Counseling, 67(3), 315-318. [doi] [url] [web of science] [abstract]
The goal of this paper is to show that nonverbal aspects in the physician-patient interaction play an important role. Interpersonal judgment relies mostly on nonverbal and appearance cues of the social interaction partner. This is also true for the physician-patient interaction. Moreover, physicians and patients tend to mirror some of their nonverbal behavior and complement each other on other aspects of their nonverbal behavior. Nonverbal cues emitted by the patient can contain important information for the doctor to use for treatment and diagnosis decisions.¦The way the physician behaves nonverbally affects patient outcomes, such as, for instance, patient satisfaction. Affilliative nonverbal behavior (e.g., eye gaze and proximity) of the physician is related to higher patient satisfaction. However, how different physician nonverbal behaviors are related to patient satisfaction also depends on personal attributes of the physician such as gender, for instance.¦Physician training could profit from incorporating knowledge about physician and patient nonverbal behavior.
Schmid Mast M., Hall J. A. & Roter D. L. (2007). Disentangling physician sex and physician communication style: Their effects on patient satisfaction in a virtual medical visit. Patient Education and Counseling, 68(1), 16-22. [doi] [url] [web of science] [abstract]
The present study aimed to investigate the effect of physician sex and physician communication style on patient satisfaction. In real medical visits, physician sex and physician communication style are confounded variables. By using the virtual medical visit paradigm, we were able to disentangle the two variables and study their separate and/or joint effects on patient satisfaction.¦In an experimental design, analogue patients (167 students) interacted with a computer-generated virtual physician on a computer screen. The patients' satisfaction during the visit was assessed.¦Depending on the sex composition of the dyad, physician communication style affected analogue patients' satisfaction differently. For instance, in male-male dyads, physician communication style did not affect the patients' satisfaction, whereas in female-female dyads, analogue patients were more satisfied when the physician adopted a caring as opposed to a non-caring communication style.¦Sex of the physician and sex of the patient moderate how different physician communication styles affect patient satisfaction. In particular, a female-sex role congruent communication style leads to higher patient satisfaction when women see a female physician.¦Physician communication training cannot be one size fits all. Rather female and male physicians should obtain different training and they need to be made aware of the fact that female and male patients harbor different expectations toward them.
Hall J.A., Murphy N.A. & Schmid Mast M. (2006). Recall of nonverbal cues: Exploring a new definition of interpersonal sensitivity. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 30(4), 141-155. [doi] [url] [web of science] [abstract]
Interpersonal sensitivity, defined as the accurate recall of another person's nonverbal behavior, was measured in two studies. In Study 1, nonverbal recall accuracy (NRA) was based on recall of cues expressed by a man and/or woman being interviewed on videotape. Retest reliability after 2weeks was satisfactory and the male and female tests demonstrated sufficient convergence. Participants could assess their own recall accuracy at better than chance levels; ability to decode the meanings of visual nonverbal cues was positively related to NRA; discriminant validity of NRA was demonstrated with regard to general cognitive ability; and women had higher NRA than men. In Study 2, NRA was based on recall of a live interaction partner. Women again had higher NRA than men; NRA was significantly better than chance; and higher NRA was associated with more smiling and self-reported positive affect during the interaction. Nonverbal recall accuracy is a promising new definition of interpersonal sensitivity.
Schmid Mast M. & Hall J. A. (2006). Women's advantage at remembering others' appearance: A systematic look at the why and when of a gender difference. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32(3), 353-364. [doi] [url] [web of science] [abstract]
Women recall the appearance of others better than men. The goal of the present research was to shed light on the explanations and boundary conditions of this gender difference. In three studies (592 participants), the authors tested potential mediators and moderators of the gender difference. Results corroborated the robustness of the gender difference. General task motivation, general memory ability, importance of appearance, appearance knowledge, attention paid to target, gazing at target, and communal or agentic orientation could not explain why women were better at recalling others' appearance than men were. Except for importance of appearance and appearance knowledge, which both decreased the magnitude of the gender difference, general task motivation, attention paid to target, length of exposure to target, delay in responding, cognitive load, and response format (verbal vs. nonverbal) had no effect on the gender difference. Results are discussed in relation to gender differences found in the nonverbal sensitivity literature.
Schmid Mast M., Hall J. A. & Ickes W. (2006). Inferring power-relevant thoughts and feelings in others: A signal detection analysis. European Journal of Social Psychology, 36(4), 469-478. [doi] [url] [web of science] [abstract]
Drawing inferences about other people's thoughts and feelings related to power issues ('power-relevant' thoughts and feelings) can affect how hierarchies are formed. Perceivers who infer such thoughts and feelings can be biased (i.e., over- or underestimating the occurrence of power-relevant thoughts and feelings). We investigated whether the perceiver's gender and the perceiver's preference for a high or low power position ('power preference') affects the perceiver's bias toward attributing power-relevant thoughts and feelings to others. Participants were 80 female and 35 male students who indicated their power preference and then guessed whether videotaped target individuals had experienced power-relevant thoughts and feelings or not. Using a signal detection approach, we found that men who preferred a high power position overestimated the occurrence of power-relevant thoughts and feelings in others more than men who preferred a low power position. No such difference in overestimation bias was found for women.
Schmid Mast M. (2005). The world according to men: It is hierarchical and stereotypical. Sex Roles, 53(11/12), 919-924. [doi] [url] [web of science] [abstract]
The present research was designed to test whether people who expect social relationships to be structured like pecking orders (interpersonal hierarchy expectation, IHE) are also prone to stereotyping and whether this relation is moderated by gender.¦In two studies, a total of 203 participants completed a self-report questionnaire on IHE (Interpersonal Hierarchy Expectation Scale, IHES) and either a questionnaire that measures a general tendency to stereotype (Acceptance of Stereotyping Questionnaire, ASQ, Study 1) or a projective measure that assesses the specific gender stereotype that low dominance positions are occupied by women and high dominance positions by men (Study 2). Results showed that both stereotyping measures were related to IHE, but only for men. Moreover, trait dominance did not mediate the relation between IHE and stereotyping.
Schmid Mast M. (2005). Interpersonal hierarchy expectation: Introduction of a new construct. Journal of Personality Assessment, 84(3), 287-295. [doi] [url] [web of science] [abstract]
The goal of these series of studies was to introduce a new individual difference construct, interpersonal hierarchy expectation (IHE), and to show that it predicts interpersonal perception. IHE means expecting social interactions and relationships to be hierarchically structured. I developed a self-report questionnaire to measure IHE (IHE Scale [IHES]). In 5 studies, 581 undergraduates took the IHES together with an array of self-report personality measures. Three studies included a measure of hierarchy perception. According to prediction, people who expected interpersonal hierarchies were prone to perceive hierarchies in interactions and relationships. The IHES is an easy to apply, short, self-report measure that might prove useful in personnel training and selection as well as in other studies of personality and social behavior.
Schmid Mast M. & Dietz C. (2005). Kommunikation in der Sprechstunde. Managed Care, 7/8, 22-24. [url]
Schmid Mast M., Kindlimann A. & Langewitz W. (2005). Recipients' perspective on breaking bad news: How you put it really makes a difference. Patient Education and Counseling, 58(3), 244-251. [doi] [url] [web of science] [abstract]
The goal of this study was to show that physician communication style of breaking bad news affects how the physician is perceived, how satisfied recipients of bad news are with the consultation, and how they feel after the consultation.¦Female participants (students, N=159) were asked to put themselves in the shoes of a patient receiving the bad news of a breast cancer diagnosis. Participants were randomly assigned to watch one of three prototypical physician communication styles of breaking bad news on videotape: patient-, disease-, or emotion-centered communication.¦Results showed that these three prototypical communication styles were perceived very differently and they determined how satisfied participants were with the consultation and how they felt after the consultation. Participants exposed to the patient-centered communication perceived the physician as most emotional, least dominant, most appropriate when it comes to conveying information, most available and most expressive of hope. Also, they reported to be most satisfied with the visit and they showed the least increase in negative emotions.¦A patient-centered communication style has the most positive outcome for recipients of bad news on a cognitive, evaluative, and emotional level.¦Results of this study provide guidelines to physicians on how to convey bad news.
Horgan T. G., Schmid Mast M., Hall J. A. & Carter J. D. (2004). Gender differences in memory for the appearance of others. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30(2), 185-196. [doi] [web of science] [abstract]
Five studies investigated gender differences in the accurate recall of the appearance of others. The greater interpersonal orientation and interpersonal sensitivity of women were predicted to give women an advantage over men in appearance accuracy. Under both directed- and incidental-learning conditions, women more accurately recalled information concerning the appearance of their social targets than did men, participants' memory for the appearance of female targets was more accurate than it was for male targets, and neither gender was found to be a relative advantage in recalling the appearance of same-gender targets. The motivational and knowledge-based factors that might underlie a gender difference in appearance accuracy are discussed.
Schmid Mast M. (2004). Men are hierarchical, women are egalitarian: An implicit gender stereotype. Swiss Journal of Psychology, 63(2), 107-111. [doi] [url] [web of science] [abstract]
The goal of the present study was to provide empirical evidence for the existence of an implicit hierarchy gender stereotype indicating that men are more readily associated with hierarchies and women are more readily associated with egalitarian structures. To measure the implicit hierarchy gender stereotype, the Implicit Association Test (IAT, Greenwaldet al., 1998) was used. Two samples of undergraduates (Sample 1:41 females, 22 males; Sample2:35 females, 37 males) completed a newly developed paper-based hierarchy-gender IAT. Results showed that there was an implicit hierarchy gender stereotype: the association between male and hierarchical and between female and egalitarian was stronger than the association between female and hierarchical and between male and egalitarian. Additionally, men had a more pronounced implicit hierarchy gender stereotype than women.
Schmid Mast M. (2004). Dominance and gender in the physician-patient interaction. Journal of Men's Health and Gender, 1(4), 354-358. [doi] [url] [abstract]
The goal of this review is to show that physician-patient interactions differ in the degree of dominance asymmetry between the physician and the patient, that physician's dominance behavior is related to negative patient outcomes, and that physician gender affects how physician dominance is perceived by patients. The article provides (1) an overview of existing findings on dominance in the physician-patient interaction, (2) a summary of gender differences in dominance with an emphasis on the physician-patient interaction, and (3) an explanation on why it might be more important for women doctors than for men doctors to adhere to a non-dominant interaction style.
Schmid Mast M. & Hall J. A. (2004). When is dominance related to smiling? Assigned dominance, dominance preference, trait dominance, and gender as moderators. Sex Roles, 150(5/6), 387-399. [doi] [web of science] [abstract]
We investigated gender and different types of dominance measures as potential moderators of the relation between dominance and smiling. We asked participants about their preference for either a dominant or a subordinate role (dominance preference), randomly assigned one of these roles to them (assigned dominance), and assessed trait dominance, felt dominance, and perceived dominance. Participants had two 8-min dyadic interactions in same-gender groups (33 all-women dyads, 36 all-men dyads), in which one was assigned to be the owner of an art gallery and the other was assigned to be the assistant to the owner. Interactions were videotaped, and smiling and perceived dominance were assessed on the basis of the videotapes. Both the particular dominance measure and gender moderated the relation between dominance and smiling. Results showed that for women in subordinate positions, those who wanted to be in a subordinate position smiled more than those who wanted to be in a dominant position. No such effect occurred for men and for participants in assigned dominant positions.
Schmid Mast M. & Hall J. A. (2004). Who is the boss and who is not? Accuracy of judging status. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 28(3), 145-165. [doi] [url] [web of science] [abstract]
We investigated whether people were accurate at judging other people's status, what behavioral and appearance cues they relied on when assessing status, whether the way those cues were used was accurate, and whether target gender affected any of the results. Targets (N = 48) were university employees (faculty and staff) who were photographed while interacting with a coworker. One sample of perceivers (66 females, 42 males) rated the relative status of the two people in the photograph to each other, and another sample (60 females and males) rated each target in the photograph on status. Additionally, an array of behavioral and appearance cues of targets in the photograph was assessed. Results showed that (1) people were able to assess status in others, (2) the cues they used to assess female and male targets were somewhat different, and (3) how much people relied on specific cues corresponded to how status was expressed in these cues.
Schmid Mast M., Kindlimann A. & Hornung R. (2004). Wie sich das Geschlecht und der Kommunikationsstil von Ärzten auf die Patientenzufriedenheit auswirken: Vom kleinen, aber feinen Unterschied. Praxis, 93(29-30), 1183-1188. [doi] [url] [abstract]
Wenn Ärzte patientenorientiert kommunizieren, also emotionale Teilnahme zeigen, der Bedeutung einer Krankheit für das Leben der Betroffenen nachgehen, die Patienten in den Entscheidungsprozess mit einbeziehen, dann sind Patienten besonders zufrieden mit¦der ärztlichen Konsultation. Ein solch patientenorientierter Kommunikationsstil ist eher bei Ärztinnen als bei Ärzten zu finden. Patienten müssten demzufolge mit Konsultationen bei Ärztinnen zufriedener sein als mit Konsultationen bei Ärzten. Die Forschung zeigt jedoch,¦dass kein Unterschied besteht: Patienten sind mit Ärztinnen gleich zufrieden wie mit Ärzten. Dieses Geschlecht-Interaktionsstil-Paradox wird beleuchtet und anhand von Geschlechterrollenstereotypen und Erwartungen der Patienten erklärt.
Schmid Mast M. & Hall J. A. (2003). Anybody can be a boss but only certain people make good subordinates: Behavioral impacts of striving for dominance and dominance aversion. Journal of Personality, 71(5), 871-891. [doi] [url] [web of science] [abstract]
The present study investigated whether people in assigned subordinate or dominant roles differ in their dominance behavior according to whether they initially wanted a subordinate or a dominant role. Sixty-six females and 72 males interacted twice for 8 mins in same-gender dyads. Prior to the interaction, participants could indicate whether they preferred to take a subordinate or a dominant role. Roles were then assigned randomly. Both interactions were videotaped and later coded for perceived dominance and speaking time. Results showed that for assigned subordinates, those who initially wanted to be in the dominant position were perceived as more dominant and behaved more dominantly than those who initially wanted to be in the subordinate role. For assigned high-dominance people, there was no difference in perceived dominance and behavioral dominance between those who initially wanted the dominant versus subordinate position.
Schmid Mast M., Hall J. A., Murphy N. A. & Colvin C. R. (2003). Judging assertiveness. Facta Universitatis, 2(10), 731-744. [url] [abstract]
In the present study we investigated whether the personality trait of assertiveness can be judged accurately, which cues are used to judge assertiveness, and how cue utilization is related to accuracy. We additionally assessed whether perceiver and/or target gender moderate any of these relationships. Participants (72 females and 36 males) watched 33 short videoclips each featuring a female and a male target interacting. After watching each clip, participants indicated how assertive they judged each target to be. Since the self-reported assertiveness measure of the targets was known, accuracy of judging assertiveness could be calculated. Each target was coded on an array of behavioral cues. Results showed that assertiveness could be judged at better than chance level and that female targets were assessed more accurately than male targets. To find out how much perceivers relied on each specific cue to judge assertiveness (cue utilization), perceived assertiveness was correlated with each of the behavioral cues across targets. We found that perceivers used different cues to judge assertiveness in female as compared to male targets. Also, accuracy of judging assertiveness was achieved by using somewhat different cues for male and female targets.
Schmid Mast M. (2002). Female dominance hierarchies: Are they any different from males'?. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28(1), 29-39. [doi] [url] [web of science] [abstract]
This research investigated gender differences and longitudinal effects in dominance hierarchy organization based on verbal interruptions in same-sex small discussion groups. Participants (58 women, 58 men; average age = 37.5) met twice in the same groups to debate for 45 minutes. The use of a newly developed coding system allowed assessing the winner and loser of an interruption and identification of dominant individuals. On the basis of dyadic dominance matrices, the degree of linearity and temporal stability were computed. Results showed that women were less hierarchically organized than men only at the very beginning of the interaction. With time, men decreased and women first increased and then decreased in hierarchical organization. Rank orders in all-male as well as all-female groups were unstable across time. Three different models describing the possible nature of dominance hierarchies are presented, and results are discussed and integrated in reference to them.
Schmid Mast M. (2002). Dominance as expressed and inferred through speaking time: A meta-analysis. Human Communication Research, 28(3), 420-450. [doi] [url] [abstract]
Differences in speaking time during a group interaction were hypothesized to reflect differences in individual dominance. In order to test this assumption, a meta-analysis was conducted. Whether speaking time is used to convey dominance to the same extent that it is used in inferring dominance was tested by contrasting studies concerned with dominance expressed in speaking time with studies of inferred dominance based on speaking time. The relationship between dominance and speaking time was significant. The strength of the associations differed due to the influence of moderator variables. Results showed that inferred dominance studies showed stronger associations between speaking time and dominance as opposed to the expressed dominance studies. If dominance was expressed due to dominance-role assignments, the association between speaking time and dominance was stronger than if individuals with different levels of trait dominance interacted. For men, the association between speaking time and dominance was stronger than for women, and same-gender groups showed stronger associations than opposite-gender groups. Also, increasing group size intensified the strength of the association linearly.
Schmid Mast M. (2001). Gender differences and similarities in dominance hierarchies in same-gender groups based on speaking time. Sex Roles, 44(9/10), 537-556. [doi] [url] [web of science] [abstract]
This study aimed at investigating whether all-women and all-men groups differed in their hierarchical organization and stability of their rank orders across time. One hundred and sixteen European, middle-class, noncollege women and men (average age: 38) participated in small-group discussions twice within a week with the same group members. Speaking time served as the behavioral dominance indicator on which group hierarchies were based. Additionally, group members rank ordered each other on dominance after each interaction. In the first session, all-men groups were more hierarchically structured than all-women groups. During each session, all-women and all-men groups showed a similar significant increase in hierarchical structuring. For both women and men, rank orders remained stable during interactions and from the first to the second session. Results are discussed in terms of three theoretical models describing dominance hierarchies.
Schmid Mast M., Hornung R., Gutzwiller F. & Buddeberg C. (2000). Sexualität in der zweiten Lebenshälfte [Sexuality in the second half of the life span]. Gynäkologisch-geburtshilfliche Rundschau, 40(1), 13-19. [doi] [url] [abstract]
Compared to other research areas of sexology, the state of knowledge regarding sexual behavior and experiences in middle and older age is rather poor. This is due to not only the continuing taboo placed on questions regarding sexuality of elderly people, but also to limited understanding of factors influencing the sexual realm. The present review presents findings on sexuality in the second half of the life span from a number of differing disciplinary perspectives. Focus is on gender differences in sexual life and the influence of critical life events on sexuality in women in the second half of the life span. Apart from restrictive social norms and individual personality factors, physiological changes during the menopause can also have an effect on sexuality. The special situation of elderly women without partners and changes in partnership sexuality during this phase of the life span are discussed. Some recommendations for the field of gynecology are derived from a multidisciplinary approach.
Schmid Mast M. & Bischof N. (1999). Untersuchungen zur Systemanalyse der sozialen Motivation (V): Eine experimentelle Untersuchung zum Altruismus in Rangbeziehungen. Zeitschrift für Psychologie, 207, 1-34. [url]
Livres Hall J. A., Schmid Mast M. & West T. (Eds.). (2016). The social psychology of perceiving others accurately. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
Latu I.M., Schmid Mast M. & Kaiser S. (Eds.). (2013). Gender and emotion: An interdisciplinary perspective. Peter Lang, Bern, Switzerland. [url] [abstract]
Women express more emotion than men, but do they also experience more emotion than men? Are emotions represented differently in men and women's brains? What are the origins of gender differences in emotions - are we born different or is it socialization that renders us different? What are the implications of gender differences in emotion for general well-being, insomnia, depression, antisocial behavior, and alexithymia? What are the most appropriate methodologies for the empirical study of gender differences in emotional experiences?¦In the current book, coordinated by The Swiss Center for Affective Sciences, these questions are answered by reviewing research on general emotional expression and experience, but also on specific emotions and affective experiences such as shame, empathy, and impulsivity. We propose an interdisciplinary contribution to the field of gender and emotions, with works authored by specialists in the fields of psychology, neuroscience, psychiatry, economics, philosophy, and anthropology.
Schmid Mast M. (2000). Gender differences in dominance hierarchies. Pabst Science Publishers, Lengerich, Germany.
Parties de livre
Chapitre Schmid Mast M., Carrard V. & Hall J. A. (in press). Gender, power, and nonverbal communication. In D. Kissane, B. Bultz, P. Butow & I. Finlay (Eds.), Handbook of communication in oncology and palliative care. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. [pdf]
Schmid Mast M. & Hall J. A. (in press). The vertical dimension of social signaling. In Vinciarelli A., Pantic M., Magnenat-Thalmann N. & Burgoon J. K. (Eds.), Social signal processing. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. [pdf]
Hall J. A., Schmid Mast M. & West T (2016). Accurate interpersonal perception. In J. A. Hall, M. Schmid Mast & T. West (Eds.), The social psychology of perceiving others accurately (pp. 3-22). Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
Schmid Mast M. & Latu I. (2016). Interpersonal accuracy in relation to the workplace, leadership, and hierarchy. In J. A. Hall, M. Schmid Mast & T. West (Eds.), The social psychology of perceiving others accurately (pp. 270-286). Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
Carrard V. & Schmid Mast M. (2015). The impact of gender stereotypes in patient-physician interactions. In Faniko K., Lorenzi-Cioldi F., Sarrasin O. & Mayor E. (Eds.), Gender and social hierarchies: Perspectives from social psychology (pp. 58-71). London, UK: Routledge. [pdf] [url] [abstract]
Female leaders are typically evaluated less favorably than their male counterparts. Since physicians are perceived as being high in status and power just like leaders, we propose to examine to what extent female doctors are affected by the same evaluations as female leaders in general. We present a review of the literature showing how the sex of the physician and the patient, as well as the sex composition of the physician-patient dyad affect the interaction behaviour of physicians and patients during the medical interaction and the interaction outcomes. Moreover, there are differences in how female and male doctors are perceived and evaluated by their patients and both of these aspects affect consultation outcomes. We examine how gender stereotypes can explain those differences of perception and evaluation of male and female physicians.
Frauendorfer D. & Schmid Mast M. (2015). The impact of nonverbal behavior in the job interview. In Kostic A. & Chadee D. (Eds.), The social psychology of nonverbal communication (pp. 220-247). Palgrave Macmillan. [pdf] [url]
Latu V. & Schmid Mast M. (2015). The effects of stereotypes of women's performance in male-dominated hierarchies: Stereotype threat activation and reduction through role models. In Faniko K., Lorenzi-Cioldi F., Sarrasin O. & Mayor E. (Eds.), Gender and social hierarchies: Perspectives from social psychology (pp. 75-87). London, UK: Routledge. [pdf] [url] [abstract]
Despite recent progress in increasing gender equality in organizations, workplace hierarchies remain male-dominated in most domains. We discuss how gender stereotypes contribute to holding women back in leadership and workplace domains and how we can reduce the negative effects of gender stereotypes. In the first part of the chapter we discuss how awareness of negative stereotypes of women in leadership can decrease women's performance and self-related cognitions in leadership tasks such as motivating employees, managerial decision-making, and negotiating. In the second part of the chapter we discuss effective strategies to reduce the negative effects of stereotypes. We particularly focus on the strategy of exposing women to counterstereotypic exemplars - women who succeeded, thus disproving the stereotype. Given that exposures to successful women can have both threatening and inspiring effects, we propose a model which discusses the conditions under which successful female role models would inspire women with leadership aspirations.
Cousin G. & Schmid Mast M. (2014). Nonverbal communication in health settings. In Thompson T. L. & Golson J. G. (Eds.), Encyclopedia of health communication. Sage publications, Thousand Oaks, USA. [pdf] [url]
Darioly A. & Schmid Mast M. (2014). The role of nonverbal behavior for leadership: An integrative review. In Riggio R. E. & Tan S. (Eds.), Leader interpersonal and influence skills: The soft skills of leadership (pp. 73-100). New York, NY: Taylor and Francis. [pdf] [url]
Hall J. A., Carney D., Latu I. M. & Schmid Mast M. (2014). Nonverbal communication and the vertical dimension of social relations. In Cheng J. T., Tracy J. L. & Anderson C. (Eds.), The psychology of social status (pp. 325-346). New York, NY: Springer. [pdf] [url]
Chiaburu D. S., Kissack H. C. & Schmid Mast M. (2013). Keeping women in their place? The joint influence of target gender and interpersonal hierarchy expectation on contextual performance requirements. In Svyantek D. & Mahoney K. (Eds.), Research in Organizational Sciences, Received wisdom, kernels of truth, and boundary conditions in organizational studies (pp. 239-269). Charlotte, USA: Information Age Publishing. [url]
Cousin G. & Schmid Mast M (2013). Gender and nonverbal expression of emotion. In Latu I. M., Schmid Mast M. & Kaiser S. (Eds.), Gender and emotion: An interdisciplinary perspective (pp. 119-131). Bern, Switzerland: Peter Lang. [url]
Schmid Mast M. & Cousin G. (2013). The role of nonverbal communication in medical interactions: Empirical results, theoretical bases, and methodological issues. In Martin L. R. & DiMatteo R. (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of health communication, behavior change, and treatment adherence (pp. 38-53). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. [pdf] [url] [abstract]
The goal of the present chapter is to provide an overview of the existing literature on nonverbal¦communication in the medical encounter. After introducing the different functions of nonverbal¦behavior and its importance in the medical context, we present empirical evidence showing how¦physician nonverbal behavior relates to different patient outcomes such as satisfaction, trust, or¦adherence. We then present different models and assessment tools with which nonverbal behavior¦in the medical encounter can be studied. The physician's ability to pick up and correctly interpret¦the patient's nonverbal cues (interpersonal sensitivity) and its impact on patient outcomes will be¦reviewed. We close the chapter by providing a summary of the main results and an outlook on open¦questions in the field.
Schmid Mast M. & Cousin G. (2013). Power, dominance, and persuasion. In J. A. Hall & M. L. Knapp (Eds.), Handbooks of communication science, HOCS 2, Nonverbal communication (pp. 613-635). Berlin/Boston: De Gruyter Mouton. [pdf] [url]
Schmid Mast M., Klöckner Cronauer C. & Hall J. A. (2010). Gender, power, and non-verbal communication. In Kissane D., Bultz B., Buto P. & Finlay I. (Eds.), Handbook of communication in oncology and palliative care (pp. 63-73). Oxford Press, New York, USA. [pdf] [url]
Schmid Mast M. & Sczesny S. (2010). Gender, power, and nonverbal behavior. In Chrisler J. C. & McCreary D. R. (Eds.), Handbook of gender research in psychology (pp. 411-425). New York, NY: Springer. [pdf] [url]
Schmid Mast M. & Hall J. A. (2009). Nonverbal communication, status differences. In Reis H. & Sprecher S. (Eds.), Encyclopedia of human relationships (pp. 1158-1161). Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, USA. [pdf] [url]
Schmid Mast M. & Klöckner Cronauer C. (2009). Geschlechtsspezifische Aspekte des Gesprächs zwischen Arzt bzw. Ärztin und Patient bzw. Patientin. In Langer T. & Schnell M. (Eds.), Das Arzt-Patient Patient-Arzt Gespräch - Ein Leitfaden für Klinik und Praxis (pp. 135-142). München, Germany: Hans Marseille Verlag. [url]
Schmid Mast M. & Krings F. (2008). Stereotype und Informationsverarbeitung. In L. Petersen & B. Six (Eds.), Stereotype, Vorurteile und soziale Diskriminierung. Theorien, Befunde und Interventionen (pp. 33-44). Basel, Switzerland: Beltz Verlag. [pdf] [url]
Jonas K. & Schmid Mast M. (2007). Stereotyp und Vorurteil. In Straub J., Weidemann A. & Weidemann D. (Eds.), Handbuch interkulturelle Kommunikation und Kompetenz (pp. 69-76). Metzler, Stuttgart, Germany. [pdf] [url]
Schmid Mast M. & Ickes W. (2007). Empathic accuracy: Measurement and potential clinical applications. In Farrow T. & Woodruff P. (Eds.), Empathy in mental illness (pp. 408-427). Cambridge, USA: Cambridge University Press. [pdf] [url]
Schmid Mast M., Murphy N. A. & Hall J. A. (2006). A brief review of interpersonal sensitivity: Measuring accuracy in perceiving others. In Chadee D. & Young J. (Eds.), Current themes in social psychology (pp. 163-185). University of the West Indies Press, Trinidad, USA. [url]
Autres (2016). Et si l'entretien d'embauche était un leurre?. Article paru dans le Bilan. [pdf]
(2015). On ne peut pas mentir à l'ordinateur. Article paru dans le Bilan. [pdf] [abstract]
Le domaine des ressources humaines utilise les mises en situation virtuelles et la biométrie¦pour évaluer et former les collaborateurs. La lecture des émotions est au coeur de ces systèmes.
(2015). Les bienfaits cachés de la hiérarchie. Article paru dans Entreprise Romande sur la réalité virtuelle au secours des dirigeants. [pdf]
(2015). La réalité virtuelle utile dans la psychologie. [pdf] [abstract]
Article paru dans l'AGEFI
(2014). Un laboratoire de réalité virtuelle voit le jour à Lausanne. Reportage sur le laboratoire de réalité virtuelle à l'Unil diffusé dans le journal télévisé de la RTS le 3 décembre 2014. [url]
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